Project Team UCD Humanities Institute and School of English | UCD School of Computer Science and INSIGHT Professor Gerardine Meaney Dr Karen Wade Dr Derek Greene Dr Jenny Rothwell Ms. Siobhán Grayson Dr Maria Mulvany
Workshop Format: 4pm - 5.45pm Chair: Dr. Emilie Pine 1. Introduction to Project: Gerardine Meaney 2. Case Study A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man: Gerardine Meaney 3. Annotation: Maria Mulvaney 4. Methodology: Karen Wade 5. Communities: Siobhán Grayson 6. Next Steps: Gerardine Meaney 7. Responses and Questions
The Project • Research Project funded by Irish Research Council in 2013. • Inter-disciplinary collaboration between UCD Humanities Institute and SFI Insight Centre for Data Analytics . • Currently creating an electronic corpus of approximately 100 Irish and English novels from the period 1800-1922 . • Corpus includes key representative and influential texts, equal numbers of Irish and English, men and women. • Using methods from social network analysis to explore and visualise the texts from new perspectives. • Aim to apply intersectional (gender, class, ethnicity) analysis to these networks, and engage in intensive critical analysis.
Part I Interpretation & Analytics
Digital Humanities in a Different World • 'Despite the aggressive promotion of Digital Humanities as a radical insurgency, its institutional success has for the most part involved the displacement of politically progressive humanities scholarship and activism in favour of the manufacture of digital tools and archives.' ( Allington et al , https://lareviewofbooks.org/article/ neoliberal-tools-archives-political-history-digital-humanities) • Allington et al's history of DH based on a couple of very well endowed US and 1 UK institutions • 'One way to frame the question more productively is to think about how digital frameworks open up a new dimension of humanistic inquiry. Digital life has humanist dimensions. Technology is nothing but humanness.' ( Parham , https:// lareviewofbooks.org/article/digital-humanities-interview-marisa-parham/)
Cultural analytics and the persistence of interpretation • Scaling up without sacrificing precision e.g. labour intensive but necessary mark up prior to data analysis. • Paying attention to cultural difference e.g. Stanford Named Entity Recognition software has been trained on a US newspaper dataset, accuracy for 19th/early 20th century European texts as low as 49%. • Historically sensitive methodology, e.g. most SNA to date excludes unnamed entities and collectives, so cuts out most servants and working class characters in many novels. • Respecting that novels are complex aesthetic artefacts as well as fascinating data sets.
Digital Humanities and Irish Studies • Development of DH in Ireland different from US and UK models. • Rooted in skills built in recovery and access projects, women's writing, nineteenth century novel, e.g. Electronic Loeber Guide to Irish Fiction http://www.lgif.ie • Lack of large scale digitisation projects nationally, but lot of Irish material in British and US libraries. • Opportunities offered by cultural and linguistic specificity. • Possibility and challenges of incorporating oral and written literature in analysis. • Useful tool to deal with radically expanded canon: Claire Connolly's point re definition of 'Irish Tale' currently based on too few texts relevant for wide range of Irish fiction.
Why Social Network Analysis? • Novels do not offer empirical evidence of actual social relations, but they do offer us an extraordinarily rich insight into how society and community are imagined by writers and readers. • Interactions between characters in novels can yield maps of textual social networks and imagined community. • Analysing corpus of fiction over an extended time period (1800-1922) and visualising these networks will allow us to trace these maps of imagined communities. • Arguments/assumptions/hypotheses that there are distinctive features in how social relations influence and are represented in Irish fiction.
Style, Structure and Social Networks • SNA does indicate differences in the social worlds of the texts in the corpus to date and the impact of historical forces on them can be identified. • Novels do not offer empirical evidence of actual social relations, but they do offer us an extraordinarily rich insight into how society and community are imagined by writers and readers. • Combining digital SNA analysis with critical reading offers possibility of engagement with expanded canon. • BUT literary form, style, narrative technique and historical forces demand attention and impact on shape of networks.
Corpus selection process • Human expertise: project management committee identified 200 potential texts, combining canonical and popular. • Balance of Irish and English, female and male authors, genre representation, across historical range. • Prioritisation dictated by need to develop and test methodology.
Part Il Case Study: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
Social Network Analysis, Literature, History Insight into the process by which ‘phenomena encountered serially in a particular society are “translated” and assigned value in terms of their position in the iconic space of that society’s purported culture…and …the metaphorization of a spatialized culture into the textual space of a novel. (James Buzard, p.12)
Revolutionary egocentricity: Stephen Dedalus • 6 nodes out of 451 appear in 6 or more of 20 sub-divisions of the 5 chapters, only 3 in more than 10. • Only people close to Stephen statistically are his parents. • Similar patterns in Katherine Cecil Thurston's Max (1910), except that there the romantic couple rather than the family that is isolated at the top. • Pattern emerging of increased isolation of the central protagonist and their very close circle in the late 19th and early 20th century. • Genre significant (applies to HG Wells, but not Agatha Christie).
Portrait Distinct Networks Chapter 1 - Family and School
Chapter 1 - Family and School
Portrait Distinct Networks Chapter 2 - Patrilinear Inheritance and a Broader World
Chapter 2 - Patrilinear Inheritance and a Broader World
Portrait Distinct Networks Chapter 3 - Solitary Soul?
Chapter 3 - Solitary Soul?
Portrait Distinct Networks Chapter 4 - Family, Peers, Nameless and Important Girl
Chapter 4 - Family, Peers, Nameless and Important Girl
Portrait Distinct Networks Chapter 5 - Cranly, Peers, Girl with name, Mother
Chapter 5 - Cranly, Peers, Girl with name, Mother
Calculated Disconnection or the Randomness of the Street? • Is lack of recurrence of characters across chapters in Portrait of the Artist indicative of extreme social fragmentation in Joyce's Dublin? • As the Joyces move house and down social classes, there is no social continuity that links them back to old associates
Mapping Plots • To what extent do the social networks in Portrait mirror the patterns of social interactions of Dublin as Joyce and his contemporaries would have experienced it? • Joyce isn't providing a plot that links them in the way Dickens would, for example.
Bleak House - 0.188 difference in Betweenness in Top 10 characters 0.214 in Top 20 Character Name Chapters Betweenness Esther Summerson 44 0.243 38 0.130 Lady Dedlock 40 0.127 Mr. John Jarndyce 16 0.093 The Lord Chancellor 17 0.087 Mr. Bucket 32 0.080 Mr. Tulkinghorn 14 0.079 Mr. Snagsby 26 0.077 Sir Leicester Dedlock 13 0.072 Mr. Krook 18 0.055 Mr. George 21 0.055 Mr. William Guppy 34 0.053 Richard Carstone
Portrait of the Artist 0.727 difference in Betweenness in Top 10 characters 0.74 in Top 20 Character Name Chapter Sub-divisions Betweeness Stephen Dedalus 20 0.746 Simon Dedalus 16 0.162 Mary Dedalus 13 0.062 Cranly 3 0.093 Conmee 7 0.045 Emma 9 0.036 Dante 4 0.030 Temple 2 0.016 Fleming 2 0.006 Wells 2 0.018 Father Arnall 3 0.024 Simon Moonan 4 0.019 Vincent Heron 3 0.019
National Plot Nation as Shared Action • Inspector Bucket: 'the whole bileing of people was mixed up in the same business, and no other' ( Bleak House ). Nation as Extra-Territorial Future • 'The shortest way to Tara was VIA Holyhead’. • 'Michael Robartes remembers forgotten beauty and, when his arms wrap her round, he presses in his arms the loveliness which has long faded from the world. Not this. Not at all. I desire to press in my arms the loveliness which has not yet come into the world’.
Part Ill The Annotation Process
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