photocatalytic oxidation of acetaldehyde by modified



  1. 18 TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION OF ACETALDEHYDE BY MODIFIED CARBON NANOFIBERS S. Kim 1 *, M. Kim 1 , S. K. Choi 2 , S. K.Lim 1 1 Division of Nano & Bio Technology, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, South Korea, 2 School of Physics and Energy Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea * Corresponding author ( Keywords : Carbon nanofiber, TiO 2 , Photocatalysis, Acetaldehyde prepared by NaF addition at acidic pH. Surface 1 Introduction TiO 2 photocatalysis has been extensively studied modifications such as noble metal deposition and with regard to its application in environmental surface fluorination could be enhancing the remediation processes [1]. The photocatalytic photocatalytic oxidation. reactions are initiated by the absorption of UV In this study, we have prepared TiO 2 embedded photons with the concurrent gerenration of polyacrylonitrile (TiO 2 /PAN) fibers. Subsequent conduction band electrons and valence band holes in calcinations of TiO 2 /PAN under N 2 atmosphere the TiO 2 lattices. The remediation power of TiO 2 produced TiO x embedded carbon nanofibers photocatalysts can be largely attributed to the strong (TiO x /CNF). Finally, thermal treatment of the oxidation potential of these OH radicals, which are TiO x /CNF under air conditions resulted in oxidized produced from the reaction between the valence TiO x /CNF (TiO 2 -CNF). The effects of the amount of band holes and surface hydroxyl groups. TiO 2 and the surface modification of TiO 2 -CNF Fir air purification, immobilized photocatalysts on have been studied. support materials are usually employed. Generally, the surface area and the activities are reduced by the immobilization of photocatalysts. Therefore, support 2 Experimental materials with high surface areas have been applied 2.1 Preparation of Composite Fibers to immobilize photocatalysts. Activated carbon has a A 10wt.% solution of PAN in DMF was prepared. high surface are, which is closely related to the TiO 2 powder was dispersed in this PAN/DMF enhancement of adsorption and photocatalytic solution. The yellowish viscous TiO 2 /PAN gel was activities. placed in a hypodermic syringe, which was Recently, some researchers have recently reported positioned at a fixed distance from a metal cathode that carbon nanofibers could be prepared by as a collector. Dense webs of nanofibers were electrospinning methods [2]. Electrospinning collected under an applied potenticial of 20 kV. For technique is a simple method for making ultra thin the preparation of TiO 2 -CNF, the TiO 2 /PAN was fibers from various polymer solutions. Moreover, placed in a tube furnace and then carbonized under nanoparticles can be directly added to the solution N 2 atmosphere. Finally, TiO x /CNF was calcined for used for electrospinning in order to obtain 3h at 400 o C in air, which resulted in its oxidation to nanofibers. Therefore, using the electrospinning TiO 2 -CNF. For surface modification, the Au or Pt techniques, photocatalysts may be easily embedded was deposited on TiO 2 -CNF by photodeposition into carbon nanofibers. Previously, we prepared method [4]. Fluorinated TiO 2 -CNF was prepared by TiO 2 embedded carbon nanofibers by NaF addition [5]. electrospinning method. TiO 2 embedded carbon nanofibers are efficiently degraded the gaseous acetaldehyde under UV irradiation [3]. 2.2 Photocatalysis Noble metals, such as Pt, Ag, and Au, were easily The photocatalytic oxidation of CH 3 CHO was deposited on photocatalysts by the photodeposition carried out in a closed-circulation reactor under method and the surface fluorinated TiO 2 was simply

  2. ambient conditions as described elsewhere [3]. The the amount of TiO 2 added and the carbon was oxidized to carbon dioxide above at 570 o C. The photocatalytic oxidation of CH 3 CHO was carried out increase of weight was observed at around 500 o C, in a closed circulation reactor under ambient conditions. Gases used were CH 3 CHO (300 ppmv in which might be attributed to the oxidation of TiO 2 N 2 ) as a CH 3 CHO standard, O 2 and air as carrier gas. from the reaction between TiO x and atmospheric O 2 . The mixed gas passed through the reservoir and the concentration of CH 3 CHO in the exit stream was monitored until it attained a constant value and the gas was then circulated by means of the pump. The circulated gas was passed through a stainless steel reactor with a quartz window so that it came into contact with the surface of a sample placed in a stainless steel reactor. After adsorption equilibrium with the surface of the sample had been established in the dark, the sample was illuminated with UV light. The removal of CH 3 CHO and the production of CO 2 were monitored using a gas chromatograph that was equipped with a Polarpak-Q column, a flame ionization detector, a CO 2 methanizer, and a gas- sampling valve. The surface morphological images of the composite Fig. 2 XRD patterns for TiO x -CNF and TiO 2 -CNF. fibers were obtained by using a FE-SEM. The weight loss of a sample as a function of temperature Fig. 2 shows the XRD spectra of various fiber samples as a function of the amount of TiO 2 . Before was monitored by Thermal gravity analysis (TGA) and XRD pattern was obtained with an X-ray oxidation (un-oxidized 30 % TiO x -CNF), almost all diffractometer using Cu K  1 radiation. of the anatase pahse had disappeared. This seems to be due to the reduction of TiO 2 during carbonization under an N 2 atmosphere, which might be attributed 3 Results and Discussion to a carbothermal reduction process. However, the anatase phase was observed in oxidized TiO 2 -CNFs, 3.1 Modified Carbon Nanofiber which implies that the reduced TiO x was oxidized by Fig.1 shows the thermal behaviors of the TiO 2 -CNF. the thermal treatment in air. This result might be The weight loss was decreased with increasing closely related to the photocatalytic degradation of CH 3 CHO. The carbon fibers could be thermally activated during the post oxidation process. 3.2 Photocatalytic Oxidation of Acetaldehyde Fig. 3 shows the photocatalytic oxidation of CH 3 CHO on TiO 2 -CNFs by the UV illumination. Before UV irradiation, CH 3 CHO was pre-contacted with the sample for 15 min. Direct photolytic degradation of CH 3 CHO was not observed at all. With un-oxidized 30 % TiO x -CNF, the concentration of CH 3 CHO did not decrease at all. The anatase phase formation during thermal treatment should be responsible for photocatalytic degradation of Fig. 1 TGA curves of TiO 2 embedded Carbon CH 3 CHO. The photocatalytic degradation rate was nanofibers as a function of the amount of TiO 2 optimized on 30 % TiO 2 -CNFs.

  3. PAPER TITLE and thus pulls the electron from TiO 2 conduction band via the Mott-Schottky interface. Therefore, the photocatalytic degradation rate of organic pollutants should be increased by noble metal deposition due to the efficient charge separation/transfer, which worked as a limiting factor. On the other hand, the surface fluorination is known to replace the surface hydroxyl groups with Ti-F species and significantly changes the photocatalytic reactivity of TiO 2 . The enhancement effect was mainly related to the reaction of homogeneous free OH radicals whose formation was favored on fluorinated TiO 2 . Fig. 4 shows the surface modification such as Pt or Au deposition and NaF addition could enhance the photocatalytic degradation of CH 3 CHO. Pt deposited TiO 2 -CNF composites displayed the highest Fig. 3 Photocatalytic degradation of CH 3 CHO on photocatalytic activity. CO 2 was concomitantly TiO 2 /CNF as a function of the amount of TiO 2 . produced as a result of CH 3 CHO degradation. This This was not consistent with the amounts of anatase result indicates that the surface modification of phase as shown in Fig. 2. Therefore, the carbon TiO 2 -CNF composites could enhance the nanofiber as a support might be played an important photocatalytic activities for the organic pollutant role. degradation. In order to increase the efficiency of photocatalytic oxidation of CH 3 CHO, the surface of 30 % TiO 2 - CNF composites was modified by noble metal deposition or surface fluorination. As an effort to increase the photocatalytic activities, noble metal deposition such as Pt or Au on TiO 2 has been a frequent topic of many photocatalytic studies on pollutant degradation. Pt or Au nanoparticle on TiO 2 has been known to act as a kind of electron reservoir Fig. 4 Photocatalytic degradation of CH 3 CHO on Fig. 5 SEM images of 30 % TiO 2 - CNFs. modified TiO 2 /CNFs. 3

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