blocks of bodybuilding

Building Blocks of Bodybuilding Nutritional aspects of Bodybuilding. Metabolic utilisation of nutritional building blocks as an energy source & for muscle cell growth and repair. Practical application of the Bodybuilding diet.

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  1. Building Blocks of Bodybuilding

  2.  Nutritional aspects of Bodybuilding.  Metabolic utilisation of nutritional building blocks as an energy source & for muscle cell growth and repair.  Practical application of the Bodybuilding diet.

  3. Building Blocks:  Macronutrients Protein Carbohydrates Lipids/Fats  Micronutrients Vitamins Minerals Trace elements

  4. Macronutrients

  5. Ess ssentia ntial l Amino Acids ds Non-es essenti sential al Amino Acids Histidine Alanine Isoleucine Arginine Leucine Asparagine Lysine Aspartic acid Methionine Cysteine Phenylalanine Glutamic acid Threonine Glutamine Tryptophan Glycine Valine Proline Serine Tyrosine

  6. Concept of Protein Quality : High Quality Protein Animal Origin High Biological Value eggs, meat, fish, poultry, dairy Complete Proteins products. Low Quality Protein Plant Proteins Low Biological Value grains, beans, vegetables, gelatin Incomplete Proteins SOY. Complimentary proteins consumed in a day improves the quality of the protein intake.

  7. General Requirement of Protein: Depends on:  Caloric Intake  Biological value of the protein  Inverse relationship with caloric intake  Less requirement if protein is of high biological value RDA:  Adult: 0.8g/kg of body weight  Athlete: 1.5-2.0g/kg  >2.0 g/kg restricted caloric intake Role: 1. Growth & Repair 2. Fuel Source 3. Excess converted into glucose or body fat

  8. Carbohydrate (energy currency) Classification: 1. Monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose 2. Disaccharides: sucrose, lactose, maltose 3. Polysaccharides: starch, fiber, glycogen In athletes it is the “Metabolic Response” to carbohydrate that is important. Therefore the “Glycemic R esponse” of food is especially important in bodybuilding.

  9. Glycemic Index and its effects on Insulin Glycemic Index (GI) of various foods: Sponge Cake 66 Kidney Beans 42 Corn Flakes 119 Carrots 101 Bagel: 103 Baked Potato 121 Oat Bran 78 Sweet Potato 77 White Rice 81 Rice Crackers 117 Ice Cream 87 Corn Chips 105 Skim Milk 46 Potato Chips 77 Yoghurt 20 Honey 104 Glucose 138 Lactose 65 Apple 52 Banana 76 Watermelon 103 Baked Beans 69 Using white bread GI=100 as a standard

  10. General Requirements of Carbohydrates General requirements: • 50 to 100 g/day to prevent Ketosis • Beyond that  fuel for energy In an athlete determined by training program E.g. to replenish Glycogen levels 1) Aerobic Endurance Athlete 8-10g/kg of body weight 600-750 g CHO 2400-3000 kcal from CHO/day for 75kg (1 calorie = 4.1868 kilojoules) (kcal) (KJ) 2) Strength, sprint, skill athlete 5-6 g/kg/day (glycogen levels have less effect on performance )

  11. Lipids • Types: 1. Triglycerides: fats & oils 2. Fatty Compounds: sterols and phospholipids • Structure: 1. Fat 9 kcal/g 2. CHO/Protein 4 kcal/g Behaviour of fats in the body related to saturation of fatty acids = amount of hydrogen it contains Saturated: – Most animal fats and tropical oils Unsaturated: – Monounsaturated: olive, peanut, canola oils – Polyunsaturated: soy, corn, sunflower, safflower oils

  12. Function of Fats 1. Energy 2. Insulation and protection of organs 3. Hormone regulation 4. Carrier of fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) 5. Supplier of essential fatty acids – Linoleic acid (omega 6) – Linolenic acid (omega 3) Which have a structural and functional role 6. Satiety

  13. Function of Cholesterol • Structural & functional component of cell membranes • Production of bile salts, Vit D & several hormones (sex hormones)

  14. Fat Requirements & Recommendations • Total calories – 30% from fat – 20% total fat intake from mono/poly unsaturated sources – 10% from saturated fats • Cholesterol – 100mg/1000 kcal not exceeding 300mg/day • At least – 3% energy from omega 6 – 0.5%-1% from omega 3

  15. Summary: Lipids 1. Energy:  Spares CHO  Spares protein for growth and repair 2. Structural role 3. Physiological functioning 4. Biochemical function-hormone production

  16. Micronutrients

  17. Vitamins • A: growth & repair • D: bone metabolism • E: anti-oxidant • C: anti-oxidant • B: co-enzyme Minerals • Calcium: muscle contraction • Iron: oxygen transport, enzymes, energy metabolism • Phosphorous • Magnesium Trace Elements Zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, fluoride, chromium Water

  18. Ajanta Caves Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India

  19. Ellora Caves Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India

  20. Metabolism: Energy systems Energy: the ability and the capacity to perform work Catabolism Large molecules smaller molecules Anabolism E.g. Protein Amino Acids Energy currency is (ATP) Adenosine Triphosphate

  21. Biological Systems which Produce Energy 1. Phosphagen system (anaerobic) 2. Glycolysis (fast and slow) 3. Oxidative system (aerobic)

  22. 1) Phosphagen System myosin ATPase • ATP  ADP + Pi + Energy creatine kinase • ADP + Creatine phosphate  ATP + Creatine

  23. 2(a) Glycolysis • Fast (reduced O 2 ) – Glucose + 2Pi + ADP  2 Lactate + 2ATP + H 2 0 • Slow (sufficient O 2 ) – Glucose + 2Pi + 2ADP + 2NAD+  Pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H 2 0

  24. 2(b) Glycolysis Blood Glucose Muscle Glycogen Pyruvate KREB CYCLE (mitochondria) Lactate (Liver) Gluconeogenesis (formation of glucose CORI CYCLE)

  25. 3) Oxidative System KREB CYCLE Glucose Beta Oxidation Amino Acids Pyruvate Fatty Acids Acetyl – CoA Amino Acids • Leucine • Isoleucine • Valine

  26. Insulin (anabolic) Role of Insulin in Muscle Building 1. Uptake of glucose, amino acids & creatine into cells 2. Stimulates protein synthesis within the cell 3. Decreases muscle breakdown  enhances muscle growth 4. Improves blood flow to muscle 5. Stimulates fat cells to store nutrients

  27. Points to note: 1. Low GI foods most of the time 2. High GI foods – On waking – After workout 3. Whey protein vs. Casein

  28. Lotus Temple Delhi, India

  29. Jama Masjid Mosque Delhi, India

  30. Practical Applications Diet: High protein Moderate fat Low CHO Protein: 2g/kg body weight High quality = animal sources CHO: Low GI 50-100g/day Fats: Triglycerides/saturated 1/3 vs. unsaturated 2/3 Cholesterol

  31. What How much Timing  Insulin secretion

  32. Insulin: 1. Uptake of CHO & protein into cells 2. Signals protein synthesis and reduces protein breakdown 3. Increases delivery of nutrients to muscle by increasing blood flow Principle: avoid ‘spikes’ of insulin to prevent ‘crashes’ and fat storage

  33. In practice… Meal contains (bulking phase) Up to 40g protein + 20-40gCHO +/- fat Whole foods Low GI MCT • Fish • Broccoli • Coconut o Tuna • Asparagus • Linseed o Salmon • Kumara • Chia Seed • Chicken • Berries • Peanuts o Breast • Banana • Almonds • Lean red meat • Oats o Beef Small meals every 2-2.5 hours 6-10 meals in 24 hours Meal contains (leaning phase) Fat > protein >>> CHO

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