accelerated aging and life time prediction for solar

Chart 1 Accelerated Aging and Life Time Prediction for Solar Concentrators CSP Today 2015, Sevilla J. Wette, F. Sutter (DLR) A. Fernandez (CIEMAT) Chart 2 Contents Motivation/Solar mirrors Outdoor testing Accelerated

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  1. Chart 1 Accelerated Aging and Life Time Prediction for Solar Concentrators CSP Today 2015, Sevilla J. Wette, F. Sutter (DLR) A. Fernandez (CIEMAT)

  2. Chart 2 Contents • Motivation/Solar mirrors • Outdoor testing • Accelerated laboratory testing • Standardization of testing procedures • Methodology to correlate accelerated aging of aluminum reflectors with outdoor exposure

  3. Chart 3 Motivation • Durability of CSP components crucial for success of the technology • Solar field and reflectors are responsible for a considerable amount of investment costs • Life time prediction is important for planning of projects (life time goals 20 years and more) • So far few standards exist and are not adapted for CSP technology

  4. Chart 4 OPAC laboratory  Optical Aging Characterization Laboratory  Joint project DLR/CIEMAT at the Plataforma Solar de Almería  Fields of work:  Optical characterization  Durability, Aging, Life time prediction

  5. Chart 5 Glass mirrors • Most common reflector • Experience from over 30 years, excellent stability • High specular reflectance • New lead free, water soluble paints need to prove durability 0.95 – 4 mm [AGC]

  6. Chart 6 Alternative reflectors Aluminum mirrors  Thin, light weight, flexible  Lower reflectance  Durability issues Polymer films  Thin, light weight  Good reflectance, lower specularity  Less experience [NREL]

  7. Chart 7 Outdoor Exposure • Extensive outdoor exposure campaign (10 sites) • Almeria, Tabernas, Gran Canaria, Abu Dhabi, Oujda Missour, Erfoud, Zagora, Tan Tan, Ben Guerir • More sites planned, or from cooperating institutions • Variety of site conditions, from urban over coastal to desert

  8. Chart 8 Chart 8 Exposure sites Abu Dhabi Tabernas, PSA Almería Masdar, Abu Dhabi Las Palmas Oujda Missour

  9. Chart 9 Chart 9 Exposure sites Erfoud Zagora Tan Tan Ben Guerir

  10. Chart 10 Outdoor conditions Measurement of important site characteristic data: • Temperature • Humidity • Irradiation • Wind • Particles, Sand, Dust • Chlorides • Other pollutants, compounds

  11. Chart 11 Field data Missour – particle measurements Light barrier attached to mirror in 5 different Visibility heights sensor >40µm Grimm DustTrak particle 0.25-31µm 0.1-10µm sensor Filter particle sampler TSP

  12. Chart 12 Accelerated Testing • Laboratory tests try to provoke aging in accelerated but realistic way • By choosing more severe parameters: • Temperature • Humidity • Irradiance (UV) • Cycles • Chemicals, pollutants (NaCl, acids, soiling) • Abrasion (particles, brushes)

  13. Chart 13 Accelerated Laboratory Tests Combinations/advanced tests • NSS + UV/humidity Standard tests • NSS + Artificial Soiling • NSS (ISO 9227) • Damp Heat + Artificial Soling • CASS (ISO 9227) • UV/Humidity + Artificial Soiling • Damp Heat (IEC 62108) • Humidity Freeze + Artificial Soiling • UV/Humidity (ISO 11507) • CASS + Sand Abrasion • Humidity Freeze (IEC 62108) • NSS + Sand Abrasion • Kesternich (DIN 50018) • UV/humidity + Sand Abrasion • UV Test • Machu Test • Immersion Test Challenge: find the best suited tests and parameters

  14. Chart 14 Laboratory erosion setup I: Soil Pipe (SP) sand Outdoor - Zagora Laboratory – soil pipe container meshes Used abrasive material: Silica particles with diameters between 300- 625 µm. rotating sample Wiesinger et al. Sand erosion on solar reflectors: under impact angle α accelerated simulation and comparison with field data DOI 10.1016/j.solmat.2015.10.036

  15. Chart 15 Laboratory erosion setup II: Sand Storm Chamber (SSC) Technical parameters: Ultrasonic wind sensor  Wind velocities from 5 ms -1 to 30 ms -1 . Inductive particle concentration  Dust concentration from measurement 50 mg m -3 to 3000 mg m -3 .  Flow rectifier and ISO 12103-1 A4 Arizona particle mixer Quartz dust (1- 180 µm). Connection for gravimetric particle measurement Dust injection system Sample compartment Fan blower Return flow in blower

  16. Chart 16 Combination of SSC and SP on Aluminum reflector SSC Zagora Soil Pipe Simulation 1 Outdoor-20 month Simulation 2 10000 1000 particle number 100 10 1 particle size [pxl]

  17. Chart 17 Standardization/Lifetime prediction • AENOR (Spanish standardization agency) developed a standard with minimum requirements for glass mirrors Reflectance and shape (guidelines from SolarPACES Task III) Ageing tests  Exposure to neutral salt spray test (NSS)  Exposure to copper accelerated acetic acid salt spray (CASS)  Condensation test  Cyclical exposure to temperature and humidity  UV radiation exposure test Mechanical durability resistance  Mechanical tests  Abrasion resistance test  Impact resistance test  Safety performance under accidental impact test

  18. Chart 18 Alumir Project • Main goal: Development of an accelerated aging guideline for aluminum solar reflectors • Funded by German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy • Extensive outdoor testing campaign • Accelerated laboratory tests • 9 materials from 3 manufacturers • 9 outdoor sites

  19. Outdoor exposure Accelerated aging Tabernas, ES NSS (ISO 9227) NSS + UV/humidity Testing Almería, ES NSS + Artificial Soiling CASS (ISO 9227) Gran Canaria, ES Damp Heat + Artificial Soling of 9 Damp Heat (IEC 62108) Oujda, MA UV/Humidity + Artificial Soiling UV/Humidity (ISO 11507) Erfoud, MA material Humidity Freeze + Artificial Soiling Humidity Freeze (IEC 62108) Missour, MA Kesternich (DIN 50018) CASS + Sand Abrasion Zagora, MA types NSS + Sand Abrasion UV Test Tan Tan, MA UV/humidity + Sand Abrasion Machu Test Abu Dhabi, UAE Immersion Test Microscopic comparison of degradation mechanism Selection of most realistic accelerated tests Develop Definition of Guideline for correlations for testing sequence durability testing each mechanism and parameters of aluminum individually (testing times) reflectors

  20. Chart 20 Correlating Accelerated Aging to Outdoor Exposure Tests Top coating erosion PVD-layer corrosion Pitting corrosion Micropitting PVD-layer Deposits DIN52348 (Sand ISO9227 (NSS), ISO11507 + soiled surface ISO9227 CASS, 100h ISO11507 (UV/humidity), trickling test) 1000h with Tabernas dust, 1000h 1000h Silica 300-650 µm

  21. Chart 21 Degradation Mechanism: Pitting Corrosion Pitting corrosion (viewed in SEM) Simulated by: CASS (ISO9227) Correlation parameter: Number of corrosion pits Equipment: Counting by eye / optical microscope Correlation to outdoors: Months CASS time (h) Site 20 - 36 - Extreme desert (Zagora) 60 - 120 - Desert 36 - (Missour, Erfoud, 60 - Oujda, Tabernas) 120 - Coastal 36 94 (Almeria, Tan Tan, 60 156 Gran Canaria, Abu 120 312 Dhabi)

  22. Chart 22 Accelerated aging procedure of aluminum reflectors Top coating PVD- Mechanism Pitting Micropitting Typical specular erosion corrosion reflectance loss @ Months CASS Sand trickling CASS UV/humidity 660nm, 12.5mrad Site (h) (g) (h) (h) 20 - 100 1 480 (20%)* Extreme 36 - 180 2 480 12% (45%)* Desert 60 - 300 4 480 - 120 - 600 8 480 39% 36 - 10 10 480 5%** (5%)* Desert 60 - 15 15 480 - 120 - 30 30 480 - 36 94 10 12 480 6% (5%)* Coastal 60 156 10 20 480 - site 120 312 10 40 480 27% *Measured/estimated average outdoor values in brackets ** estimated value based on slightly modified procedure

  23. Chart 23 Summary • Durability tests/Lifetime prediction of components is crucial • Testing/Outdoor exposure infrastructure exists • Standardization is an ongoing task • Standard with minimum requirements for glass mirrors exists • Guideline with site-specific tests for aluminum reflectors was developed and is under research for reflectors in general

  24. Chart 24 Thank your for your attention! Contact:

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