the genetics of cancer

The Genetics of Cancer: Is Personalization of Cancer Treatment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

The Genetics of Cancer: Is Personalization of Cancer Treatment Possible? Keith T. Flaherty, M.D. Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center Disclosures Board of Directors: Clovis Oncology, Loxo Oncology Scientific Advisory Board:

  1. The Genetics of Cancer: Is Personalization of Cancer Treatment Possible? Keith T. Flaherty, M.D. Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center

  2. Disclosures • Board of Directors: Clovis Oncology, Loxo Oncology • Scientific Advisory Board: Sanofi, Ziopharm, Oncoceutics, Raze, X4 Therapeutics • Consultant: GSK, Novartis, Roche, Merck, Amgen, Array, Cerulean, Momenta

  3. Somatic mutation burden by cancer type Alexandrov et al. Nature 2013

  4. Mutation patterns sort into distinct subgroups Alexandrov et al. Nature 2013

  5. BRAF, NRAS and NF1 define mutually exclusive subsets of melanoma 200 Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network et al. TCGA symposium 2012

  6. Melanoma: the model of MAP kinase dependence 25% 50% 10% Sullivan RJ & Flaherty KT. CCR 2014

  7. Recurrent concomitant mutations in BRAF mutant melanoma AKT3 BRAF MITF MDM2 Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network et al. TCGA symposium 2012

  8. Tumor regression V600E BRAF mutant melanoma patients (vemurafenib) RECIST 30% Decrease Sosman J et al. NEJM 2012

  9. BRAF vs. BRAF/MEK combination in V600E BRAF mutant melanoma patients Maximum percent reduction from baseline measurement 100 80 60 40 Dabrafenib monotherapy 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 Best confirmed response Progressive disease Partial response Stable disease Complete response 100 80 60 40 Dabrafenib 150 mg BID/Trametinib 2 mg QD 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 Long G et al. ESMO 2012

  10. Tumor regression to erlotinib in EGFR mutant NSCLC Rizvi N et al. CCR 2011

  11. Tumor regression to crizotinib in ALK translocated NSCLC Camidge R et al. Lancet Oncol 2012

  12. BRAF inhibition in V600E BRAF melanoma & colon cancer melanoma colorectal Sosman J et al. NEJM 2012 Kopetz, ASCO 2010

  13. Feedback mechanisms in the MAP kinase pathway Mendoza et al. Trends Biochem Sci. 2011

  14. Vemurafenib (BRAFi) or dabrafenib/trametinib (BRAF/MEKi) in BRAF mutant colorectal cancer Kopetz, ASCO 2010 Corcoran ASCO 2012

  15. NCI MATCH • Identify mutations/amplifications/translocations in patient tumor sample - eligibility determination • Assign patient to relevant agent/regimen • Need to sequence large numbers of tumors and need to have large numbers of targeted treatments • Tumor biopsies & sequencing at progression to illuminate resistance mechanisms – De-identified samples submitted to central labs – Whole-exome sequencing (research purposes)

  16. SCHEMA Stable Disease, Continue on Complete or study agent PD partial until Genetic Actionable response progression Study sequencing mutation (CR+PR) 1 agent detected Progressive Check for additional disease actionable (PD) 1 mutations 2 No Yes No additional actionable mutations, or 1 CR, PR, SD, and PD as defined by RECIST withdraw consent 2 Rebiopsy; if additional mutations, offer new targeted therapy Off study

  17. Eligibility • Patients with solid tumors or lymphomas whose disease has progressed following at least one line of standard systemic therapy (or with tumors that do not have standard therapy) – Exclude histologies that had been approved by the FDA or had shown lack of efficacy with an agent • Tumor accessible to biopsy and patient willing to undergo biopsy • Adults • Performance status ECOG 0-1 • Adequate organ function

  18. Patient population considerations • Target: at least 25% of total enrollment to be patients who have “rare” tumors • “Common” defined as breast, NSCLC, colon, prostate

  19. Statistical Design Statistical Considerations (within each drug-by-mutation category) Primary Endpoint: • Overall Response Rate 5% vs. 25% • One stage design 31 evaluable patients per arm

  20. CLIA lab network • Genetic platform: Ion Torrent PGM Ampliseq custom panel – About 200 genes – SNV, indel, CNV, targeted translocations • Validation within and across sites: same SOP • Selected IHC, FISH • Competitively chosen lab sites: – MDAnderson (Hamilton) – MGH (Iafrate) – Yale (Sklar)

  21. Tumor Biopsy • Prior to study entry a biopsy (4 cores) FFPE, shipped to MDACC • Adjacent section H&E stained, examined by pathologist for tumor content, % necrosis, inflammation, and scanned into high resolution image database • RNA and DNA extracted from the same tissue section • Planned research assays: – If sufficient DNA is available, whole-exome sequencing can be performed for research – RNA will be used for research grade gene expression profiling by either whole-transcriptome or miRNA microarray analysis • Biopsy on progression

  22. MATCH Assay Workflow and Turnover Time Biop iopsy Received Tumor content >50% Tiss issue Fix ixation 3 DAYS Path Review DNA yield > 20 ng Nuc ucleic Ac Acid 1 DAY Ex Extraction Library yield > 20 pM Library/Template Prep Lib 1 DAY Test fragments Total read Reads per BC Sequencing Seq 1 DAY Coverage NTC, Positive, Negative Controls aMOI aM OI Rep eport 1 DAY Review Sanger Sang 3 DAYS Ver erifi ification Final Fin l Report 10-14 days 10 22

  23. Rules of evidence for “actionable” variants • Level 1: Credentialed for selection of an FDA approved drug • Level 2a: Eligibility trial for an ongoing trial • Level 2b: N-of-1 response (with mechanistic basis) • Level 3: Preclinical data with known PK/PD – Selective activity in biomarker-defined model – Functional evidence that alterations in target lead to upregulation & dependence – Functional evidence of pathway activation as consequence of loss of function in tumor suppressor

  24. First round of committed agents Drug Molecular Targets Afatinib EGFR activating (non NSCLC) Afatinib HER2 kinase activating AMG 337 MET amplification AMG 595 EGFR vIII AZD 9291 EGFR T790M (non NSCLC) Crizotinib ALK fusions Crizotinib ROS translocations Dabrafenib + Trametinib BRAF V600E (nonmelanoma) GDC 0032 PIK3CA ampl/mut; WT RAS, No PTEN loss GSK2636771 PTEN Mut, PTEN IHC+ PTEN Mut, PTEN IHC – GSK2636771 GSK2636771 PTEN wt, PTEN IHC - JNJ 493 Ampl FGFR 1,2, or 4; FGFR mut MLN 0128 mTOR mut MLN 0128 TSC1 or TSC2 mut Sunitinib KIT mutations TDM-1 HER 2 ampl (non breast or gastric) Trametinib BRAF nonV600E or fusions Trametinib NF1 mut (arm1) GNAQ,GNA11 mut (arm 2) Trastuzumab/pertuzumab HER2 ampl (non breast or gastric) Vismodegib SMO or PTCH mut VS 6063 NF2 loss

  25. Logistics • Master Protocol with Multi-arm phase II trials • IND for protocol template – Arms could be added or deleted without affecting other arms • Single agents or combinationsf where recommended phase 2 dose is known • FDA Approved (for a different indication) or investigational agents • Central IRB • 2400 NCTN sites • CLIA lab network: validated assay

  26. NCI: Developing a National Strategy for Precision Medicine • NCI-MATCH Clinical trial (Genotype to Phenotype) – Screen for molecular features that may predict response to a drug with a given mechanism of action • Genomics of Exceptional Responders (Phenotype to Genotype) – Tumor from patients who had an exceptional response to a drug for which predictive biomarkers are not known

  27. Acknowledgements MATCH trial leadership: NCI - Alice Chen, Barb Conley, Mickey Williams ECOG-ACRIN - Peter O’Dwyer, Stan Hamilton

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