Nutrition and Cancer: Fighting Cancer With Food
Fighting Cancer With Food • Living a healthy lifestyle is important in today’s world and when cancer is diagnosed, it becomes even more crucial. • Cancer takes a large toll on one’s body emotionally, physically and spiritually. • This presentation will go over an overview of a healthy diet and how to adjust one’s diet when dealing with cancer and the treatments associated with cancer.
“A Healthy Diet” • Limit processed meats (Bacon, hot dogs, lunchmeat) • Choose fish, poultry, beans and lean cut red meat • At least 2 ½ cups of Fruits & Vegetables Daily • Choose whole grains over refined grains – 6-8 servings whole grain daily • Limit intake of sugar sweetened beverages
Common Types of Cancer 1. Breast Cancer 2. Lung Cancer 3. Prostate Cancer 4. Colon Cancer 5. Skin Cancer
The Super Foods Fruits and vegetables become increasingly important in someone • diagnosed with cancer because of the antioxidants, polyphenols, vitamins, and minerals within them. • The nutrients listed are sometimes termed as “cancer - fighting” • Fruits: – Apples- Good source of Vitamin C, Fiber & Quercetin (antioxidant) – Berries (raspberries & blueberries)- Highest in antioxidants – Grapes- Resveratrol (polyphenol) that has potent antioxidant effects • Vegetables: – Tomatoes- Contains lycopene- attacks free radicals in body lower risk – Carrots- May reduce risk of cancer (beta-carotene & falcarinol= antioxidants)
Effect of Cancer on Nutrition • Increased need for calories • How the food is prepared • How food is presented – Temperature – Texture • Loss of appetite---> • Loss of taste/smell
Before Treatment • Stock up your pantry with foods you enjoy so you don’t have to grocery shop as often • Talk to friends and family about how they can assist you with cooking or shopping – Keep them involved & let them know about certain foods that work well or that you have difficulty eating
Once Treatment Begins • People who eat well may be able to cope with side effects more easily • Try new foods ─ Taste preferences may change during the treatment, something you disliked before could become your new favorite food • Incorporate plant-based foods ─ Beans & peas instead of red meat • 2 ½ cups of fruits & vegetables – Dark-green leafy veggies – Citrus fruits (antioxidants)
Once Treatment Begins • Reduce the amount of fat in your diet – Limit red meats – Switch to low-fat milk & dairy – Try low-fat cooking methods • Baking • Broiling – Limit amount of salt-cured, smoked and pickled foods
Once Treatment Begins • Snack whenever needed!! – The body needs extra calories & protein to maintain weight & heal as quickly as possible – Snacks can improve your overall strength and energy level throughout the day – Protein rich foods (calorie dense) • Yogurt, cereal, cheese & crackers – Avoid snacks that worsen your side effects
Once Treatment Begins • Eat your favorite types of foods at any time of the day – Ex: Breakfast for dinner (eggs, cereal, oatmeal) – If you can tolerate a certain type of meal more easily, stick to it. • Drink high calorie & high protein beverages – Shakes, liquid supplements, smoothies • Drink fluids in between meals not with them! – Fluids with meals makes you feel full faster
Berry Blast Protein Shake • ¼ c uncooked oats • 1 banana • 8 strawberries (fresh or frozen) • 1 T flaxseed • 2 T whey protein powder • 1 c frozen fruit (any kind) • 1 c liquid (milk, soymilk, ensure) Put ingredients into blender and blend. 600 calories, 43g protein, 13g fiber
Common Side Effects of Cancer Treatment • Nausea & Vomiting • Fatigue • Constipation • Anorexia/Cachexia
Ways to Manage Nausea & Vomiting • Eat foods low in fat • Avoid foods with strong odors – Cold or room temperature items can decrease odor of food • Dry, starchy, salty items help – Pretzels, saltines • Smaller meals are better than big meals • Avoid fried foods
Ways to Manage Fatigue • Smaller, more frequent meals – Eat largest meal when energy & appetite are the best – If most energy in morning, make breakfast a big meal • Incorporate ready-to-serve items – Minimal preparation less energy used • Have snacks easily accessible to bedside/chair side • Limit chores or tasks to be done at home – Less moving around more energy conserved
Ways to Manage Constipation • Eat 25-35g of fiber daily AND increase fluid intake – 8 cups of water each day is recommended – Beans & legumes are good sources of fiber • Choose whole wheat flour or brown rice over white rice or potatoes • Eat fruits and vegetables with the skin on • Try drinking hot liquids
Ways to Manage Anorexia/Cachexia • Make sure you feel comfortable & relaxed when you eat. – Reduce stress & conflict in regards to eating. • Choose set times to eat meals & snacks instead of whenever you feel hungry • Light physical activity can improve appetite • Small, frequent meals (5-6)
Juicing • Juicing has gotten some attention in cancer patients lately. • Juicing is defined as the process of separating the juice from the pulp of fruits, vegetables and plant foods. • Beneficial for those who have difficulty chewing, swallowing or experiencing digestive issues.
Juicing • Effective for allowing person to increase the amount of fruits & vegetables in their diet. • Those who are able to chew and digest food normally should get their first 5 servings of fruit and vegetables from whole food before beginning to juice.
Tips for Juicing 1. The focus should be on vegetables • Vegetables have fewer calories so overall they make for a healthier juice • Add one or two fruits to sweeten it up 2. Drink what you would normally eat • If you normally eat 2-3 carrots in one sitting, juice 2-3 carrots 3. Add protein • Balances out the number of carbs & allows fat-soluble vitamins to be absorbed 4. Embrace variety 5. Count crucifers • Cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, kale, brussel sprouts) aid our body’s ability to detoxify, but like any nutrient if taken in excess it can be bad for one’s health.
Summary • Eating a healthy diet is important to all individuals, but especially during cancer treatment. • Don’t be afraid to talk to friends & family about ways they can help make the time easier. • Plant based foods are very important. (fruits & vegetables= antioxidants) • Recognize side effects of the treatment & work to improve them continuously. • Juicing may be an option for you to incorporate more fruits and vegetables in your diet.
Works Cited American Cancer Society. (2015). Nutrition for the person with cancer during treatment. Retrieved • from http://www.cancer.org/treatment/survivorshipduringandaftertreatment/nutritionforpeoplewithcancer/nutriti onforthepersonwithcancer/nutrition-during-treatment-before-treatment-begins • American Cancer Society. (2016). ACS guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention. Retrieved fromhttp://www.cancer.org/healthy/eathealthygetactive/acsguidelinesonnutritionphysicalactivityforcancerp revention/acs-guidelines-on-nutrition-and-physical-activity-for-cancer-prevention-guidelines • Dixon, S. (2014). Juicing & Cancer. Oncology nutrition academy of nutrition and dietetics. Retrieved from https://www.oncologynutrition.org/erfc/hot-topics/should-i-be-juicing/ • Levin, R., Schulze, S. O., (2016). Oncology, cancer care continuum. Nutrition care manual . Retrieved from https://www.nutritioncaremanual.org/topic.cfm?ncm_category_id=1&lv1=22938&lv2=145086&ncm_toc_i d=145086&ncm_heading=& • Moselle, A. (n.d.). Berry blast protein shake. Retrieved from https://stanfordhealthcare.org/medical-clinics/cancer-nutrition-services/recipes/berry-blast- protein-shake.html • National Cancer Institute. (2016). Common cancer types. National cancer institute. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/types/common-cancers Zero. (2016). Diet and nutrition. Zero cancer. Retrieved from https://zerocancer.org/learn/current- • patients/maintain-qol/diet-and-nutrition/
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