inflammatory arthritis

INFLAMMATORY ARTHRITIS Professor Bruce Kirkham Guys & St Thomas - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

INFLAMMATORY ARTHRITIS Professor Bruce Kirkham Guys & St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust DISCLOSURES Industry and investigator-initiated studies of therapies for arthritis since 2000, currently Novartis, Eli Lilly Consultant/Speaker:

  1. INFLAMMATORY ARTHRITIS Professor Bruce Kirkham Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust

  2. DISCLOSURES Industry and investigator-initiated studies of therapies for arthritis since 2000, currently Novartis, Eli Lilly Consultant/Speaker: Eli Lilly & Co, Gilead, Janssen, Novartis Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospitals Schmollinger Map 1833


  4. In clinic last week • Mary aged 28 • Second baby born 3 months ago • Happy and healthy • Mary had noticed some joint aches in last few months ?related to pregnancy

  5. Mary continued • Pain and stiffness, especially in wrists and hands at night and mornings • Very hard to nurse baby and function, especially in the mornings eg make tea • Struggled on, then one morning very hard to get out of bed, partner has to help • GP referred urgently to Rheumatology

  6. SYMPTOMS OF INFLAMMATORY ARTHRITIS Joint swelling Night and morning pain and loss of function In RA usually increased ESR, CRP Often normal in PsA and AS


  8. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: RA is a common disease: 0.8 per cent of the population RA more common in females: female to male ratio 3:1 RA is a serious disease: • pain, disability, crippling • social isolation, unable to look after family • high divorce rate RA is a costly disease: total costs £ 1.3 billion per annum Severe, uncontrolled RA increases mortality

  9. UNCONTROLLED ARTHRITIS Pain and swelling cause serious loss of function Continued active arthritis causes joint damage


  11. NORMAL RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS Synovial Inflamed membrane synovial membrane Major cell types: T lymphocytes macrophages Pannus Minor cell types: Cartilage fibroblasts plasma cells dendritic cells mast cells Capsule Major cell type: Synovial fluid neutrophils Feldmann, et al. 1998;14:397-440; Fox DA. 2000;160:437-444. Amgen 2000.

  12. Blood vessel The normal joint lining is • very thin. • it has a few blood vessels • no white blood cells in it. capsule White blood cells The inflammed joint lining is very different: • it is thickened • it is crowded with white blood cells • it has many new blood vessels capsule

  13. Macroscopic view of inflammed synovial membrane in RA 14

  14. INFLAMMED SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE – Thickening of the synovial membrane – Inflammatory infiltrate of immune cells – Increased numbers of blood vessels Rosenberg A. In: Cotran RS, Kumar V, Collins T, eds. Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1999:1215 – 1268.

  15. What are my treatment goals in Rheumatology? • Improving patients lives - pain reduction and restored function are the top two goals of therapy for people with RA • Treating to target is the strategy to maximise improvement • Use measurable outcomes

  16. What are my treatment goals in Rheumatology? Prevent progressive joint damage • Uncontrolled RA causes joint damage • Once joint damage has occurred it produces irreversible loss of function • Remission results in much lower rates of joint damage 1990 1992 1991 17

  17. Treatment Goal: Remission • Disease activity DAS28 Scale – Normal labs (ESR, CRP) – DAS28 <2.6 Severe disease activity – DAS44 <1.6 • Quality of life – Zero disability (HAQ <0.5) 5.1 • X-rays Moderate disease activity – No radiographic progression 3.2 (Change of TSS ≤ O) Low disease activity 2.6 • True remission: absence of symptoms, Remission inflammation, and damage progression

  18. Mr AH - Electrician • Onset of inflammatory arthritis – 10/05 • NSAID’s little response – difficult to get out of bed • Rheumatologist – Diagnosis RA – Rx MTX • Serious difficulty working • Abnormal LFT – ALP & GGT - ? Liver Bx • Seen by nurse – SJC 3, ESR 104, CRP 80

  19. Mr AH - Electrician • Seen RA Centre – 02/06 • DAS score 7.1 – SJC 15 – about to stop job • Rx Pred 30mg/d, increase MTX • 04/06 – DAS 4.3 – Working well- Triple Rx • 08/06 - DAS 2.3 – In remission - feels normal, ‘can do everything except running’ • MTX/SASP/HCQ – No prednisolone

  20. Work disability occurs early • The Early RA Study (ERAS) • A prospective longitudinal UK study • 22% (80 of 353) of patients employed at the study start had stopped working by 5 years due to RA (Young 2002) Young, A., et al. How Does Functional Disability in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Affect Patients and their Lives? Results of 5 years of Follow up in 732 patients from the Early RA Study (ERAS). Rheumatology . 2000; 39:603-61

  21. RA: treatment makes a difference • Treatment: – must begin early (within 3 months) – must be effective • Drugs and biologics: – slow/halt joint damage – improve quality of life • Methotrexate and biologics reduce the higher mortality rate

  22. Function improves with better control Gullick et al (In preparation )

  23. Infliximab: Change in Mean Total Sharp Score at 2 years * * * * n= 50 n= 58 n= 66 n= 69 n= 66 * p<0.001vs MTX Data from Maini RN et al Arth Rheum 2004; 50: 1051-1065

  24. Early treatment has better results • Rapid access to our clinics – we work with local GPs • Rapid diagnosis, sometimes this is not easy • Imaging arthritis can help early diagnosis

  25. Conclusion • Treat-to-Target strategy is highly effective • Optimises individual patient needs to achieve important patient-related outcomes • Multiple therapy options are necessary • Achievable within normal NHS resource

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