ENDURANCE SPORTS NUTRITION
Complex carbohydrates with Simple carbohydrates with high glycemic index + Simple carbs + complex carbs + low glycemic index complex carbs + proteins + electrolytes proteins BEFORE DURING AFTER 0.5 grams of carbs/kg body 1-2 grams per kg of body weight 30-90 grams every hour weight , 1 to 4 hours before up to 4 hours post-exercise Energy Drinks: sipping slowly (can alternate with Recovery Drinks: taken within 1 3 days before (option): water) hour after exercise Maltodextrine carbo loading Electrolytes : Salt replacement (ex: Zero ) Recovery (protein) bars: after exercise Morning of…: Energy cake Energy bars / Energy waffles: cut into pieces or Granola before race and eat slowly Recovery sticks: after exercise Energy gums / fruit pulps / fruit jelly bars: dose 1-2 hours before: low Daily Protein Requirements slowly to reduce sugar highs and lows glycemic carb like oats (ex: No exercise: 0.5-0.8 g/kg/day CLIF BAR ) Energy gels: to be taken only when necessary. Once Endurance: 1.2 – 1.4 g/kg/day start must continue every 20- 45 minutes… Resistance: 1.6 – 1.7 g/kg/day Water Water Water 150-300 mL / 15-20 minutes 1000 – 2000 mL per kg lost 250-500 mL = 500-1000 mL/h Cures (ex: Stimium Recuperation MC3 ) + Nutritional Complements (ex: Protein / Fe / Mg )
Outline PART 1: ENERGY and MACRONUTRIENTS ◦ What is energy? What are macronutrients? What does each macronutrient do? PART 2: OPTIMAL HEALTH and CONSEQUENCES ◦ Why is proper hydration important? Why are macronutrients important? PART 3: OPTIMAL HEALTH and EXERCISE ◦ How much water, carbs proteins, vitamins and minerals should I take? PART 4: PRODUCTS TIMELINE OVERVIEW ◦ What are the different types? Which product for the correct timing?
PART 1: ENERGY and MACRONUTRIENTS WHAT IS ENERGY? WHAT ARE MACRONUTRIENTS? WHAT DOES EACH MACRONUTRIENT DO?
Energy ◦ Everything you do (consciously or unconsciously) requires energy. ◦ but… WHAT IS ENERGY? ◦ In biology energy is a reusable molecule called ATP ( A denosine T ri- P hosphate). ◦ ATP provides the energy necessary to drive all biological and chemical reactions in your body.
Energy ◦ From where do we get ATP? ◦ The famous Kreb’s cycle (aka Citric Acid cycle) ◦ What do we need to make ATP? ◦ FOOD and OXYGEN
Macronutrients ◦ Macronutrients or Macro-Nutrition simply refers to the three basic nutritional categories: ◦ Carbohydrates – quick source of energy ◦ Fats – Stored / long term source of energy ◦ Proteins – building block of muscles, connective tissue, etc.. ◦ IMPORTANT TO NOTICE: ◦ Proteins, fats and carbohydrates can all be used to make energy.
Carbohydrates ◦ Carbohydrates provide the main source of energy for metabolism in living organisms. ◦ Carbohydrates are the primary energy source during exercise ◦ Common carbohydrates are sugars and starches.
Carbohydrates ◦ “ Carbs ” can be divided into three types based on their shape: ◦ Monosaccharides ◦ Single ring sugars ◦ Ex: glucose, fructose... ◦ Disaccharides ◦ Double ring sugars ◦ Ex: sucrose, lactose… ◦ Polysaccharides ◦ Rings of chains of sugars (a.k.a complex carbohydrates). ◦ Ex: starch (pasta, bread, potatoes, maltodextrin…)
Carbohydrates Carbs are also divided according to their Glycemic Index : “a number associated with carbohydrates in a particular type of food that indicates the effect of these carbohydrates on a person's blood glucose (also called blood sugar) level. A value of 100 represents the standard, an equivalent amount of pure glucose.” High Glycemic Index Food Low Glycemic Index Food
Lipids (fat) ◦ Lipids are fats and oils. ◦ Used to store energy for long term use. ◦ The fatty acids are either saturated or non-saturated:
Proteins ◦ The basic building blocks for all living things and are important for both structure and function. ◦ In fact, the protein is the key "building" nutrient for a variety of bodily tissues, many of which support muscle growth: ◦ Enzymes – proteins that drive all the body’s chemical reactions. ◦ Skin ◦ Hair ◦ Nails ◦ Bones ◦ Connective tissue ◦ …
Proteins ◦ Protein makes up 15-20% of ones bodyweight and is thus, next to water, the body's second most abundant substance. ◦ Proteins are actually long chains of smaller units called amino acids . ◦ One protein may contain hundreds, thousands, or millions of amino acids in a single chain. ◦ There are about only 20 different types of amino acids . ◦ Two categories: ◦ Essential amino acids (9) – must be obtained through diet ◦ Non-essential amino acids (11) – can be synthesized by the liver
We cannot make our own and need Proteins to eat to get them Essential Amino Acids Non Essential Amino Acids Histidine Alanine Isoleucine Arginine BCAA – the 3 A.A. most Leucine Asparagine found in Valine Aspartic Acid muscle tissue Lysine Cysteine Methionine Glutamic acid Phenylalanine Glutamine Threonine Glycine Tryptophan Proline Serine Tyrosine
PART 2: OPTIMAL HEALTH and CONSEQUENCES WHY IS PROPER HYDRATION IMPORTANT? WHY ARE MACRONUTRIENTS IMPORTANT?
Optimal Health and Exercise THE MOST IMPORTANT TOOL YOU HAVE IS YOUR BODY ◦ Expensive bicycles, the latest shoes, the best training outfits…are all support materials for your body ◦ You need to maintain your body in optimal health and condition: ◦ Consume adequate energy and nutrients Proper nutrition and energy ◦ Maintain appropriate body composition products (drinks, bars, gels, ◦ Promote optimal recovery from training electrolytes etc..) ◦ Maintain hydration status Water
Water and Dehydration ◦ About 50%-75% of the body is water ◦ Dehydration caused by exercise can lead to decreased performance ◦ Potentially dangerous ◦ Light dehydration can also cause: ◦ dizziness , light-headedness, lack of energy, and muscle cramping. ◦ Severe dehydration can lead to: ◦ heat exhaustion , heat stroke , seizures , and even death.
Responses during exercise with different amounts of water intake: Body temperature Heart rate Rating of Perceived Exertion
Carbohydrates and Hypoglycemia ◦ Carbs are the main source of energy for the body. ◦ When exercising we quickly deplete our store reserves of Carbs ◦ We completely deplete our carb reserves in about 3 hours
Carbohydrates and Hypoglycemia ◦ It takes about 60 minutes of exercise before the body starts using Fats as a source of energy. ◦ The risk for endurance athletes is Hypoglycemia : Hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, occurs when the level of glucose in your blood drops below normal ◦ What are the symptoms and risk:
Protein deficiency ◦ Carbohydrates and fat are the body's major fuels during exercise. ◦ However: ◦ Resistance athletes breakdown a large quantity of protein. ◦ Endurance athletes also breakdown protein but at a smaller quantity. ◦ Meaning that additional protein must be taken to replace the lost protein: ◦ To be sure that protein is not drawn away from muscle, where it is needed for growth and RECOVERY ◦ To be sure it is not taken from vital organs where serious damage can occur (long term catabolic state).
Vitamins, Minerals, and Athletic Performance B vitamins ◦ Needed for energy metabolism ◦ Choose variety of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables Calcium ◦ Needed for normal muscle function and strong bones ◦ Low-fat dairy products ◦ Adequate intake may be a problem for females
Vitamins, Minerals, and Athletic Performance Iron ◦ Needed for oxygen delivery and energy production ◦ Athletes have higher losses ◦ Lean red meats, vegetables, and enriched grains Other trace minerals ◦ Copper and zinc: ◦ involved in maintaining and regulating many physiological processes, especially those involved in normal carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism and the ultimate formation of usable energy ◦ Avoid high-dose supplements
PART 3: OPTIMAL HEALTH and EXERCISE HOW MUCH WATER, CARBS, PROTEINS, VITAMINS AND MINERALS SHOULD I TAKE?
Optimal Health and Exercise THE MOST IMPORTANT TOOL YOU HAVE IS YOUR BODY ◦ You need to maintain your body in optimal health and condition: ◦ Consume adequate energy and nutrients Proper nutrition and energy ◦ Maintain appropriate body composition products (drinks, bars, gels, electrolytes etc..) ◦ Promote optimal recovery from training ◦ Maintain hydration status Water
Optimal Health and Exercise ◦ Vary depending on effort: ◦ Ex: Running less than 10km (1hr) Vs. more than 10km (1hr) ◦ Ex: Frequency of training ◦ Vary depending on goals: ◦ Ex: Weight loss Vs. Maintain weight Vs. Gain weight ◦ Ex: Exercise for pleasure VS. performance ◦ Vary depending on individual experience ◦ Ex: some people require lots of carbs Vs. some people require just water ◦ Vary depending on environmental conditions ◦ Ex: very hot day Vs. normal/cool day
Water and Exercise Exercise and fluid loss ◦ Increased losses from sweat ◦ Increased with heat, humidity ◦ Risk for dehydration Hydration ◦ Adequate fluids before, during, after exercise ◦ Water vs. sports drinks depends on: ◦ Duration ◦ Intensity ◦ Environmental factors
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