QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations Christian Howard University of Illinois @ Urbana-Champaign Fall 2017 - CS 598 APK Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

The Goal For this project, the goals were to implement a model for the Python package pytential for tackling the Maxwell Equations for perfect conductors using QBX and the Decoupled Potential Integral Equation (DPIE) formulation. The main expectation with using this model, versus the Magnetic Field Integral Equation (MFIE), is better resolution and convergence across different frequencies. Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

A Little Context Building cool stuff like radars, missiles antennas, medical imaging tech, and more benefit a lot from solving the Maxwell Equations to solve some tough Computational Electromagnetics problems Early Warning Radar Raytheon AGM-176 Griffin Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

Industry needs Robustness and Efficiency For people in industry working on systems that can be modeled with Partial Differential Equations, there are a few key features for a solver that will make it more likely to be adopted: Solver must be fast Solver must be accurate Solver must be robust Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

Industry needs Robustness and Efficiency Those demands are lofty. Fortunately, Integral Equation based solvers make hitting all those targets feasible. Using Integral Equation based solvers, we can get the following: Excellent convergence rates Excellent conditioning properties Ability to accelerate computations using the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) and other hierarchical algorithms Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

Electromagnetic Scattering on Perfect Conductors Many problems can be approximated as electromagnetic scattering with perfect conductors, so modeling these problems is our goal. Discussion on the modeling in the slides to come is based on [1]. Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

Electromagnetic Scattering on Perfect Conductors For a fixed frequency ω , the electric and magnetic fields, E and H , take the form: E ( x , t ) = R{ E ( x ) e − iωt } H ( x , t ) = R{ H ( x ) e − iωt } where R{ z } returns the real part of z . We can then represent E ( x ) and H ( x ) as a sum of incident (known) and scattered (unknown) fields: E = E inc + E scat H = H inc + H scat Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

Electromagnetic Scattering on Perfect Conductors The equations to be solved take the form: Maxwell Equations ∇ × E = iωµ H , ∇ × H = − iωǫ E Sommerfield-Silver-M¨ uller Radiation Condition � µ H scat ( x ) × x ǫ E scat ( x ) = o ( | x | − 1 ) , | x | → ∞ | x | − Perfect Conductor Boundary Conditions n × E scat � n × E inc � � � | ∂D = − | ∂D n · H scat � n · H inc � � � | ∂D = − | ∂D Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

Electromagnetic Scattering on Perfect Conductors Some other useful relationships for modeling the problem are ( n · E ) | ∂D = ρ ǫ | ∂D ( n × H ) | ∂D = J | ∂D ∇ s · J = iωρ where J and ρ are the induced current density and charge on ∂D and ∇ s · J represents the surface divergence of the tangential current density. Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

Magnetic Field Integral Equation The Magnetic Field Integral Equation (MFIE) can be used to model electromagnetic scattering for perfect conductors. The formulation begins by defining E scat and H scat using the Lorenz gauge vector and scalar potentials, A scat and φ scat E scat = iω A scat − ∇ φ scat H scat = 1 µ ∇ × A scat with the Lorenz gauge relationship defined as ∇ · A scat = iωµǫφ scat Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

Magnetic Field Integral Equation We then define the A scat and φ scat based on the induced surface current J and charge ρ using Single Layer Potentials in the following manner: � A scat [ J ]( x ) = µS k [ J ]( x ) ≡ µ g k ( x − y ) J ( y ) dA y ∂D φ scat [ ρ ]( x ) = 1 ≡ 1 � ǫ S k [ ρ ]( x ) g k ( x − y ) ρ ( y ) dA y ǫ ∂D with k = ω √ ǫµ and the kernel being defined as: g k ( x ) = e ik | x | 4 π | x | Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

Magnetic Field Integral Equation Using H scat = 1 µ ∇ × A scat and the boundary condition ( n × H ) | ∂D = J | ∂D the Magnetic Field Integral Equation can be found to be the following: 1 2 J ( x ) − K [ J ]( x ) = n ( x ) × H inc ( x ) , x ∈ ∂D � K [ J ]( x ) = n ( x ) × ∇ × g k ( x − y ) J ( y ) dA y ∂D Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

Magnetic Field Integral Equation After obtaining J , one can obtain ρ via the continuity equation ∇ s · J = iωρ where ∇ s · J represents the surface divergence of the tangential current density. Alternatively, you can back out φ scat using the Lorenz gauge relationship: φ scat = − i ωǫ ∇ · S k [ J ] From here, obtaining E scat and H scat is straight forward. Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

Problems with MFIE The MFIE is ill conditioned as ω → 0 . To back out E scat and H scat , need to perform computations with ω − 1 which leads to catastrophic cancellation. For example, ρ is computed by ρ = ∇ s · J iωǫ Additionally, for ω = 0 in multiply-connected domains, MFIE has a nonzero nullspace dimensionality equivalent to the genus of ∂D Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

The Decoupled Potential Integral Equation The premise for this formulation is to impose boundary conditions on the potentials φ and A instead of the fields E and H , in hopes the resulting integral equation can be better conditioned, insensitive to the topology of the domain, and remain straight forward to solve. Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

The Decoupled Potential Integral Equation First, the boundary conditions that will be imposed on the vector and scalar potentials are the following: n × A scat �� n × A inc �� � � ∂D = − � � ∂D n × ∇ φ scat �� n × ∇ φ inc �� � � ∂D = − � � ∂D These boundary conditions for the potentials can be shown to satisfy the Maxwell equations, radiation condition, and perfect conductor boundary conditions. Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

The Decoupled Potential Integral Equation Next is important to note that the Lorenz gauge condition does not uniquely determine what form the potentials A and φ take. Due to this, A and φ can be chosen to cast the problem into a more ideal form. For an incoming plane wave with a polarization vector E p and propagation direction u , the incident fields can be written as E inc = E p e ik u · x � ǫ H inc = µ u × E p e ik u · x The standard potentials are A inc = E inc iω , φ inc = 0 , but these can be modified to the stable form A inc = − u ( x · E p ) √ µǫe ik u · x φ inc = − x · E p e ik u · x Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

The Decoupled Potential Integral Equation To handle uniqueness of the vector potential solution A scat for all k ≥ 0 , the scalar Helmholtz is modified to ∆ φ scat + k 2 φ scat = 0 φ scat | ∂D j = f + V j � ∇ φ scat · n � � ds = Q j ∂D j ∇ φ inc · n where f | ∂D j = − φ inc | ∂D j and Q j = − � � � ds ∂D j Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

The Decoupled Potential Integral Equation To handle uniqueness of the vector potential solution A scat for all k ≥ 0 , the vector Helmholtz is modified to ∆ A scat + k 2 A scat = 0 n × A scat � � | ∂D = f n · A scat | ∂D j = h + v j � n · A scat � � ds = q j ∂D j where f | ∂D j = − n × A inc | ∂D j , h = −∇ · A inc | ∂D and n · A inc � � � q j = − ds ∂D j Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

The Decoupled Potential Integral Equation Note the following operator definitions � S k σ = g k ( x − y ) σ ( y ) dA y ∂D � ∂g k D k σ = ( x − y ) σ ( y ) dA y ∂n y ∂D � ∂g k ′ S k σ = ( x − y ) σ ( y ) dA y ∂n x ∂D ∂ � ∂g k ′ D k σ = ( x − y ) σ ( y ) dA y ∂n x ∂n y ∂D where g k ( x ) is again defined as g k ( x ) = e ik | x | 4 π | x | Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

The Decoupled Potential Integral Equation After the modification to the scalar and vector Helmholtz, the scaled DPIEs for the scalar potential is N σ � 2 + D k σ − ikS k σ − V j χ j = f j =1 � � 1 k σ + iσ � ds = 1 ′ ′ 2 − iS kD k σ kQ j ∂D j with unknowns { V j } , σ for a representation of φ scat ( x ) as φ scat ( x ) = D k [ σ ]( x ) − ikS k [ σ ]( x ) Christian Howard QBX and the DPIE for the Maxwell Equations

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