helium isotopes with bess polar ii

Helium Isotopes with BESS-Polar II Nicolas PICOT-CLEMENTE for the - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

ICRC 2017 Busan, July 13 th Precise Measurements of Hydrogen and Helium Isotopes with BESS-Polar II Nicolas PICOT-CLEMENTE for the BESS-Polar Collaboration Institute for Physical Science and Technology University of Maryland N. Picot-Clmente

  1. ICRC 2017 Busan, July 13 th Precise Measurements of Hydrogen and Helium Isotopes with BESS-Polar II Nicolas PICOT-CLEMENTE for the BESS-Polar Collaboration Institute for Physical Science and Technology University of Maryland N. Picot-Clémente 1

  2. The BESS-Polar Collaboration N. Picot-Clémente 2

  3. Objectives of the BESS Program K. Abe et al., PRL 108, 051102, 2012 K. Abe et al., PRL 108, 131301, 2012 Precise Antiproton Search for Antinuclei: Measurements: Antideuteron Antihelium If deviation observed from Novel Origins Matter/ expected secondaries Antimatter Primordial Black Hole Asymmetry or Dark Matter Precise Measurements of Precise Measurements of H & He Isotope Spectra: H & He Spectra: K. Abe et al., ApJ 822, 2, 2016 1 H , 4 He are primaries, Solar Modulation 2 H, 3 He are secondaries Secondary Production in ISM and Atmosphere Secondary-to-Primary ratios ( 2 H/ 1 H, 2 H/ 4 He, 3 He/ 4 He) Probe Galactic cosmic-ray propagation Test if propagation history is the same for light and heavy elements 3

  4. BESS Flights 9 Northern latitude balloon flights (~1 day) / 2 Antarctic flights 2001-2002 I, II 4 # of p events: 6; 2 43 415; 398 668; 558 166 1512; 7886 BESS-Polar I BESS-Polar II Dec. 13 th , 2004 Dec. 23 rd , 2007 Launch date Observation time 8.5 days 24.5 days 9 x 10 8 events 4.7 x 10 9 events Cosmic-ray observed 37-39 km (5-4 g/cm 2 ) ~36 km (~5 g/cm 2 ) Flight altitude BESS-Polar II Flight Trajectory 5 times more events recorded with BESS-Polar II. Significantly reduces statistical uncertainties for H and He isotope flux measurements. 4

  5. The BESS-Polar Instrument Determination of particle’s characteristics: Velocity b : Use of top-bottom (or top-middle) TOFs Resolution of ~2%. Charge Z: From dE/dx in TOFs Resolution of 0.4% at 1 GV. From gyroradius r in mag. field B = 0.8 T Rigidity R: MDR of 240 GV. With Mass M: Kinetic energy per nucleon Ek: The BESS-Polar instrument allows to measure hydrogen and helium 5 isotopes from ~ 0.2 GeV/n to ~ 1.5 GeV/n.

  6. Data Selection Geometric Acceptance: dE/dx Vs. R in top TOF Events crossing top & bottom TOFs => 0.29 m 2 sr (GEANT4 MC simulations) 2 malfunctioning PMTs were excluded out of 44. Charge selection: Selection of Z=1 or Z=2 particles with top TOF dE/dx. “Single - track” selection criteria: Remove hadronic interacting events and ensure that particles are passing through the fiducial region of the JET. • • 1 or 2 hits in top/bottom TOFs. Selection of Z=1 or Z=2 • 1 reconstructed track. particles with LTOF dE/dx. • • 40 expected hits in JET. 1 hit in JET center. Cut efficiency of 53% for Z=1 and 44% for Z=2 particles. “Quality” selection criteria: * Efficiencies were estimated using Z=1 Remove particles with poorly reconstructed tracks due to noise or detector limitations. and Z=2 flight data sub-samples preselected with top TOF and JET. MC Good XY and YZ c 2 . • • L XY > 500 mm. simulations were used for cross D R -1 < 0.015. • • 3/4 Vernier pads in each IDC layer. checking. • • Hits < 100 in JET. TOF hit position – track position < 75 mm. Cut efficiency of 95%. H & He Isotopes with BESS-Polar II 6

  7. Isotope Separation Z=1 particles with BESS-Polar II (flight data) Z=2 particles with BESS-Polar II (flight data) High mass separation power. e + , m + , p + , k + and 3 H are mostly secondary particles produced in the atmosphere. Good mass resolution up to ~4 GV to separate isotopes. Reliable measurements, good agreement with theoretical lines, except at the lowest energies. 3 He identification 2 H identification 0.45<Ek<0.50 GeV/n 1.05<Ek<1.19 GeV/n 0.45<Ek<0.50 GeV/n 1.05<Ek<1.19 GeV/n *Double Crystal ball functions are used for separation at the highest energies.

  8. Flux Calculation Flux Calculation: Atmospheric Secondary Calculation: Flux at Top of Instrument (TOI) Method from Papini et al., 1996. Calculates secondaries considering 3 different physical processes: 1 H Ionization, attenuation and production. The flux measured at TOI is used as starting point, and the Runge-Kutta method is employed to solve the 2 H equations numerically. Atmospheric secondaries are negligible for 3 He and 4 He, above ~ 0.4 GeV for 1 H and above ~ 0.8 GeV/n for 2 H. N. Picot-Clémente H & He Isotopes with BESS-Polar II 8

  9. H and He Isotope CR Propagation with GALPROP Realistic model that calculates CR propagation in the Galaxy. GALPROP*: *galprop .stanford.edu/ Incorporates as many processes and astrophysical data as possible to reproduce observations. Fusion cross section Vs. proton kinetic energy (Lock and Measday, 1970) Use of modified version of GALPROP (Picot-Clemente et al., 2015): Max at ~600 MeV The proton fusion process was implemented: This version uses also more accurate fragmentation cross sections at low energies (from Coste et al., 2012): Interstellar secondary-to-primary ratios using the modified version compared to default version of GALPROP with the Reacceleration model Fusion + new c.s. No fusion, new c.s. New c.s. Fusion + old c.s. Old c.s. No fusion, old c.s. N. Picot-Clémente 9

  10. Hydrogen and Helium Isotope Fluxes IMAX (92) BESS-Polar II in good agreement in BESS (93) AMS-01 (98) magnitude with PAMELA for 1 H, 2 H and 4 He, BESS (00) as expected for same solar modulations. 450 MV PAMELA (06-08) AMS-02 (11-13) total p flux 1 H BESS-Polar II (07-08) BESS-Polar II fluxes higher than previous 700 MV experiments, in agreement with NM data. 450 MV However: PAMELA 2 H falling earlier than 1200 MV BESS-Polar II. PAMELA 3 He at most 30% 700 MV lower than BESS-Polar II. 4 He 1200 MV 450 MV GALPROP in general good agreement with same solar modulation parameter 450 MV 450 MV with BESS-Polar isotope measurements. 2 H 700 MV 700 MV 3 He 1200 MV GALPROP Model used: 1200 MV Diffusion Reacceleration Model D0xx=6.05 10 28 cm 2 s -1 ; d =0.34. Valfvén=34 km s-1. N. Picot-Clémente H & He Isotopes with BESS-Polar II

  11. Hydrogen and Helium Isotope Flux Ratios 2 H/ 1 H BESS-Polar II consistent with BESS-93 and PAMELA. 3 He/ 4 He not much affected by Solar modulations. => BESS-Polar II consistent within uncertainties with AMS-01 and BESS-93. PAMELA 3 He/ 4 He significantly lower than other measurements, except IMAX-92 data that were taken at Solar maximum. The version of GALPROP that includes deuteron fusion production and more accurate production cross sections agrees well with BESS- Polar II hydrogen and helium isotope fluxes and ratios, with a same Solar modulation parameter of 450 MV. N. Picot-Clémente 11

  12. Conclusion BESS-Polar II gives the most precise measurements of hydrogen and helium isotope fluxes and ratios in the range 0.2 – 1.5 GeV/n. Measurements are consistent with previous data (except PAMELA 3 He) and with expectations for data taken during Solar minimum. GALPROP was modified to be more suitable for hydrogen and helium cosmic-ray isotopes between 0.2 and 1.5 GeV/n: _ Implementation of proton fusion to deuteron (Acknowledgement to A. Strong). _ Adding more accurate low energy hydrogen and helium isotope cosmic-ray production cross- sections. Although calculations still need improvement, predictions from GALPROP with reacceleration model fit well BESS-Polar II isotope measurements using one same Solar modulation parameter. Hydrogen and helium isotope fluxes and ratios bring important information to better constrain cosmic-ray propagation models and parameters. N. Picot-Clémente H & He Isotopes with BESS-Polar II 12


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