Crazy Traits VSVS Training Manual 2018-2019 VINSE/VSVS Rural
Introduction • Learning Goals: Students distinguish between the terms allele genotype, and phenotype, and can describe their role in inheritance. Students describe the role of dominant alleles, recessive alleles, incomplete dominance, and codominance in determining phenotype Write the following terms on the board: heredity, gene, dominant gene, recessive gene, allele • Talk to students about traits, or the things that distinguish us from other people. – Some examples include hair color, height, and eye color. • Genes are the basic units of heredity and are located on DNA. – Your traits are determined by the genes you inherit from your parents. – For each trait, you get at one gene from your mother and one gene from your father. – Different forms of the same gene are called alleles. – There are at least 2 alleles for each gene (one from each parent) – The Dominant allele covers up the appearance of the Recessive allele. • .
Introduction cont. • The traits you end up with are determined by two factors: 1.the genotypes of your parents 2.the allele from each parent you inherit • Genotype is the combination of alleles that an individual has for a certain trait • Phenotype is the physical expression of a genotype
Setting Up • Show students the pictures of the mother and father. Tell them that the parents both have the genotype Tt for all traits. • In other words, the parents for all of the creatures will look the same. • First, we will identify the gender of your creature. Find the red female coin (X on both sides) and the black male coin (X on one side, Y on the other). • Place the two coins in the cup and roll them onto the table. Record your results under gender on the observation sheets.
Determining genotypes for your creature • Learning Goals: Students distinguish between the terms allele genotype, and phenotype, and can describe their role in inheritance. Students understand and use Punnett Squares as a Mother Crazee visualization tool for predicting the likelihood that t an offspring will have a particular genotype. T • You will need the blue egg coin with a capital T (Dominant allele) on one side and a lower case TT Tt T t (Recessive allele) on the other side. • You will also need the green sperm coin with a Father Crazie capital T on one side and a lower case t on the t Tt tt other side. • Students will flip sperm and egg coins to determine the allele for each trait your creature inherits from each parent • Draw the Punnett square on the board, and have the students help you to fill it in. • Ask students: For the sperm coin what are the chances of getting a T, or getting t? 50 % or ½. • Is this percentage the same for the egg coin? Yes, both parents had the same genotype .
Determining the genotype for a trait Trait Genotype Genotype Genotype Phenotype of • The first trait you will roll for is of of of offspring skin color. mother father for offspring for the the trait (examples) • Place the egg and sperm coins trait in the cup. Gender XX XY XX Female • Shake the cup and toss the two Skin color Tt Tt TT coins onto the lab table. Leg Tt Tt Tt • The side that lands up on each coin represents the sperm and Foot Tt Tt tt egg that unite during fertilization. Arms Tt Tt Tt • Record the inherited allele from each parent and genotype in Hands Tt Tt Tt column 4 of the first row of Table 1. (Rows 1-3 have already been Eye Color Tt Tt tt entered) • Repeat this procedure for traits 2 through 13.
Determining the phenotype for a trait • After the genotype for each trait has been determined, it is time to match the genotype to the phenotype. • Remember the ph enotype is the ph ysical appearance of a genotype. • Look at the key on the Instruction Sheet (look at the next page for an example). Match the genotype for your creature with the corresponding phenotype on the key. • Fill out the fifth column on the table of the observation sheet.
To fill out the fifth column of this table Trait genotype genotype genotype Phenotype of of father of of mother offspring offspring Use this key (determined by flipping a coin Trait Genotypes and Phenotypes Gender XX: female XY: male Skin color TT: red Tt: purple tt: blue Gender XX XY XX Female Leg TT: short Tt: short tt: long Skin Tt Tt TT red Foot TT: webbed Tt: webbed tt: talons co lor Arms TT: long Tt: long tt: short Leg Tt Tt Tt short Hands TT: paws Tt: paws tt: claws Eye color TT: red Tt: one red, one tt: green Foot Tt Tt tt talons green Arms Tt Tt tt short Hands Tt Tt Tt paws For example, if you flipped the coins and got Eye Tt Tt tt green Co TT for skin color, TT corresponds to red skin lor color
Building your creature • Learning Goals: Students distinguish between the terms allele genotype, and phenotype, and can describe their role in inheritance. Students describe the role of dominant alleles, recessive alleles, incomplete dominance, and codominance in determining phenotype. • Have the students set the parts on the part sheets included with the lab. • Tell students that they will be using these parts to create offspring from these parents. • They will be returning all parts to the sheet at the end of the lesson. • They will need to make sure that ALL parts get returned. Building Hints: 1. The female bodies have the rounded part closest to the head. The male bodies have the pointed part closest to the head. 2. Put the skin on, then attach the head and leg. 3. Next find the correct foot, place the foot on the base and put the creature in the base. Female example Male example 4. Finish matching the correct traits with the body parts.
Thinking about what you observed 1. Have students compare their creatures with other creatures from the class. Set a time limit, or have VSVS team members hold up the creatures for the class to see. 2. Ask students: Do any of them look exactly alike? Why or why not? Remember that everyone started out with identical parents! Some look similar, but no two are alike. For two to look exactly alike, every single flip of all three coins would have to be the same for both creatures. 3. Have students report whether their creatures were male or female. Write the totals on the board. What number would we have expected? 50% Is the counted total 50%? It may be, but it may not be. Our prediction was made because there was a 50% chance of getting a female, and a 50% chance of getting a male. But we need a large sample for this prediction to be true.
Dominant and Recessive Traits Tell students to look at the Table on their Instruction sheet. –Ask students: Which traits are dominant traits ? Which traits are recessive traits ? Make two columns on the board, one for dominant and one for recessive. The answers are below . Dominant Recessive short legs long legs webbed feet talons long arms short arms paws claws unibrow separate eyebrow trumpet beak crusher beak elephant ears mouse ears long antenna short antenna knob antenna shape star antenna shape no wings wings Not all of the traits are dominant or recessive. Students should notice that two traits aren’t dominant or recessive. Skin color is an example of incomplete dominance and eye color is an example of codominance.
PTC Tasting: Optional Activity • Learning Goals: Students describe the role of dominant alleles, recessive alleles, incomplete dominance, and codominance in determining phenotype • Place the small piece of paper on your tongue. – What happened? • How many in the classroom can taste something? • How many cannot taste anything? • The ability to taste PTC is an inherited trait . • Most of the students in the class should be “tasters.” • TT and Tt are both tasters, tt is a non taster. • Write down the number of students who could taste the PTC and the number who could not. • Ask students which trait they think is dominant and which is recessive.
Clean - up Important: As students finish with their creatures, have them take the creature apart and place each part on the parts sheet to make sure they return every part. One volunteer will lead the optional activity while the other volunteers go around the room for clean up!
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