Chapter 6: Probability
I t Introduction to Probability d ti t P b bilit • The role of inferential statistics is to use the sample data as the basis for th l d t th b i f answering questions about the population. • To accomplish this goal, inferential procedures are typically built around the concept of probability. • Specifically, the relationships between samples and populations are usually samples and populations are usually defined in terms of probability.
P Probability Definition b bilit D fi iti • Definition: For a situation in which several different outcomes are possible, l diff t t ibl the probability for any specific outcome is defined as a fraction or a proportion of all the possible outcomes. – In other words, if the possible outcomes are identified as A, B, C, D, and so on, then: • To simplify the discussion of probability, we use a notation system that eliminates a lot of the words.
P Probability Definition cont. b bilit D fi iti t • The probability of a specific outcome is expressed with a p (for probability) followed by the specific outcome in parentheses. – For example, the probability of For example the probability of selecting a king from a deck of cards is written as p(king). – The probability of obtaining heads for p y g a coin toss is written as p(heads). • Note that probability is defined as a proportion, or a part of the whole. – In other words, this definition makes it possible to restate any probability problem as a proportion problem.
P Probability Definition cont. b bilit D fi iti t • By convention, probability values most often are expressed as decimal values. • But you should realize that any of these three forms is acceptable. – Fraction F ti – Proportion – Percentage
R Random Sampling d S li • For the preceding definition of probability to be accurate it is necessary that the to be accurate, it is necessary that the outcomes be obtained by a process called random sampling. • Definition: A random sample requires that each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected. – A second requirement, necessary for many statistical formulas states that many statistical formulas, states that the probabilities must stay constant from one selection to the next if more than one individual is selected. – To keep the probabilities from changing from one selection to the next, it is necessary to return each i di id individual to the population before l t th l ti b f you make the next selection.
Random Sampling cont. R d S li t – This process is called sampling with replacement. • The second requirement for random samples (constant probability) demands that you probability) demands that you sample with replacement.
P Probability and the Normal Distribution b bilit d th N l Di t ib ti • An example of a normal distribution is shown in Figure 6.3. • Note that the normal distribution is symmetrical, with the highest frequency in the middle and frequencies tapering off in the middle and frequencies tapering off as you move toward either extreme. • Although the exact shape for the normal distribution is defined by an equation (see y q ( Figure 6.3), the normal shape can also be described by the proportions of area contained in each section of the distribution distribution. • Statisticians often identify sections of a normal distribution by using z-scores.
Fig. 6-3, p. 170
Probability and the Normal y Distribution cont. • Figure 6.4 shows a normal distribution with several sections marked in z-score units. • You should recall that z-scores measure positions in a distribution in terms of positions in a distribution in terms of standard deviations from the mean. • There are two additional points to be made about the distribution shown in Figure 6.4. – First, you should realize that the sections on the left side of the di distribution have exactly the same ib i h l h areas as the corresponding sections on the right side because the normal distribution is symmetrical. y
Probability and the Normal y Distribution cont. – Second, because the locations in the distribution are identified by z scores distribution are identified by z-scores, the percentages shown in the figure apply to any normal distribution regardless of the values for the mean and the standard deviation. – Remember: When any distribution is transformed into z-scores, the mean becomes zero and the standard b d th t d d deviation becomes one. • Because the normal distribution is a good model for many naturally occurring model for many naturally occurring distributions and because this shape is guaranteed in some circumstances (as you will see in Chapter 7), we will devote considerable attention to this particular id bl tt ti t thi ti l distribution.
Fig. 6-4, p. 171
Probability and the Normal y Distribution cont. • The process of answering probability questions about a normal distribution is introduced in the following example. • Example 6.2 – Assume that the population of adult A th t th l ti f d lt heights forms a normal-shaped distribution with a mean of μ = 68 inches and a standard deviation of σ = 6 inches. – Given this information about the population and the known proportions f for a normal distribution (see Figure l di ib i ( Fi 6.4), we can determine the probabilities associated with specific samples.
Probability and the Normal y Distribution cont. • For example, what is the probability of randomly selecting an individual from this population who is taller than 6 feet 8 inches (X = 80 inches)? • • Restating this question in probability Restating this question in probability notation, we get: • We will follow a step-by-step process to find the answer to this question. – 1. First, the probability question is , p y q translated into a proportion question: Out of all possible adult heights, what proportion is greater than 80 inches?
Probability and the Normal y Distribution cont. – 2. The set of "all possible adult heights" is simply the population g p y p p distribution. – This population is shown in Figure 6.5(a). – The mean is μ = 68, so the score X = 80 is to the right of the mean. – Because we are interested in all heights greater than 80, we shade in h i ht t th 80 h d i the area to the right of 80. This area represents the proportion we are trying to determine. y g – 3. Identify the exact position of X = 80 by computing a z-score. For this example,
Fig. 6-5, p. 172
Probability and the Normal y Distribution cont. • That is, a height of X = 80 inches is exactly 2 standard deviations above the mean and corresponds to a z-score of z = +2.00 [see Figure 6.5(b)]. • • 4 The proportion we are trying to 4. The proportion we are trying to determine may now be expressed in terms of its z-score: • According to the proportions shown in g p p Figure 6.4, all normal distributions, regardless of the values for μ and σ , will have 2.28% of the scores in the tail beyond z +2 00 beyond z = +2.00.
Probability and the Normal y Distribution cont. • Thus, for the population of adult heights,
Th U it N The Unit Normal Table l T bl • To make full use of the unit normal table, there are a few facts to keep in mind: – The body always corresponds to the larger part of the distribution whether it is on the right hand side or the left it is on the right-hand side or the left- hand side. • Similarly, the tail is always the smaller section whether it is on the right or the left. – Because the normal distribution is symmetrical, the proportions on the right-hand side are exactly the same i h h d id l h as the corresponding proportions on the left-hand side. –
Th U it N The Unit Normal Table cont. l T bl t – Although the z-score values change signs (+ and -) from one side to the other, the proportions are always positive. – Thus, column C in the table always Thus column C in the table always lists the proportion in the tail whether it is the right-hand tail or the left- hand tail.
P Probabilities, Proportions, and z-Scores b biliti P ti d S • The unit normal table lists relationships between z-score locations and proportions in a normal distribution. • For any z-score location, you can use the table to look up the corresponding table to look up the corresponding proportions. • Similarly, if you know the proportions, y you can use the table to look up the p specific z-score location. • Because we have defined probability as equivalent to proportion, you can also use the unit normal table to look up h i l bl l k probabilities for normal distributions.
Probabilities, Proportions, and z-Scores , p , cont. • In the preceding section, we used the unit normal table to find probabilities and proportions corresponding to specific z- score values. • • In most situations however it will be In most situations, however, it will be necessary to find probabilities for specific X values. • Consider the following example: g p – It is known that IQ scores form a normal distribution with μ = 100 and σ = 15. – Given this information, what is the probability of randomly selecting an individual with an IQ score less than 130? 130?
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