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100 Years of Biological 100 Years of Biological Wastewater Treatment Practice: Wastewater Treatment Practice: A Perspective A Perspective Chuan-hong XING March 11, 2008 The Outline The Outline Re-look at WWTPs on an 100-year scale


  1. 100 Years of Biological 100 Years of Biological Wastewater Treatment Practice: Wastewater Treatment Practice: A Perspective A Perspective Chuan-hong XING March 11, 2008

  2. The Outline The Outline ■ Re-look at WWTPs on an 100-year scale ■ Current biological wastewater treatment ■ Promising R&D focus ■ Future R&D directions: a shift in concept ? ■ Concluding remarks

  3. ■ Re-look at WWTPs worldwide In ancient Rome…

  4. ■ Re-look at WWTPs worldwide ■ Fixed film � Nature

  5. ■ Re-look at WWTPs worldwide ■ Fixed film � Nature IMAGE CREDITS: Henry Aldrich Email: haldrich@micro.ifas.ufl.edu

  6. ■ Re-look at WWTPs worldwide ■ May 1914, Ardern and Lockett introduced a recycle of suspension (activated sludge). * Arden, E. and W. T. Lockett (1914) Experiments on the oxidation of sewage without the aid of filters. J. of Soc. Chem. Ind. Vol. 33, pp. 523-539

  7. ■ Re-look at WWTPs worldwide Secondary Discharge Degritting Primary Clarifier Clarifier Disinfection Aeration Basin Na 2 (SO 3 ) Polyer Blend Tank NaClO dN dN Belt Thickener Screening dP dP Gas Generator Polyer Tertiary Treatment Boiler Flare Centrifuge Biosolids Final Disposal Start Here

  8. ■ Re-look at WWTPs worldwide Wastewater Point Source Non-point Source Industrial Domestic Other Agricultural >80% 100% >80% 100%

  9. ■ Re-look at WWTPs worldwide Low strength Aerobic * e.g. <1000 mgCOD/L Wastewater as mgCOD/L Anaerobic High strength + Aerobic + e.g. >1000 mgCOD/L

  10. ■ Current biological wastewater treatment For aerobic processes: For aerobic processes: ■ Demand of oxygen � Energy high ■ Excess sludge � Disposal difficult Major breakthrough: Major breakthrough: ■ Membrane bioreactor

  11. ■ Current biological wastewater treatment < 50,000 m < 50,000 m 3 3 / d / d / d < 144,000 m < 144,000 m 3 3 / d / d / d < 50,000 m < 50,000 m / d < 144,000 m < 144,000 m / d < 50,000 m < 50,000 m 3 < 50,000 m < 50,000 m 3 / d / d / d / d 3 / d < 50,000 m < 50,000 m 3 < 50,000 m < 50,000 m / d / d / d

  12. ■ Current biological wastewater treatment < 50,000 m 3 < 50,000 m 3 / d / d / d < 50,000 m < 50,000 m / d 3 / d < 50,000 m < 50,000 m 3 < 50,000 m < 50,000 m / d / d / d and more . . . < 50,000 m < 50,000 m 3 3 / d / d / d < 50,000 m < 50,000 m / d

  13. ■ Current biological wastewater treatment G 1 G 2 *Smith, C.V.Jr., D.Di Gregorio (1969) The use of ultrafioltration membrane for activated sludge separation. In: proceedings of the 24th annual Purdue industrial waste conference . West Lafayette, Indiana, 1300-1310 G 3 ?

  14. ■ Current biological wastewater treatment Mitsubishi Rayon PE membrane 0.1micron Mitsubishi Rayon PE membrane 0.1micron * Yamamoto k., M. Yamamoto k., M.Hiasa Hiasa, M. , M. Mahmood Mahmood and T. Matsuo (1989) Direct solid and T. Matsuo (1989) Direct solid- -liquid liquid * separation using hollow fiber membrane in an activated sludge aeration tank. ration tank. Water Water separation using hollow fiber membrane in an activated sludge ae Science and Technology 21(4/5):43 Science and Technology 21(4/5):43- -54 54

  15. ■ Current biological wastewater treatment √ Significantly reduced energy consumption √ √ Minimized excess sludge production √ ■ MBR G3 √ Integrated N & P removals √ √ Extended filtration time

  16. ■ Current biological wastewater treatment − ⎛ ⎞ Y C C = ⎜ ⎟ When SRT → ∝ , i e Lim MLVSS ⎝ ⎠ → ∞ k HRT SRT d 4 5 4 0 2 3 5 H R T , h 3 0 MLVSS, g/L 2 5 2 0 4 1 5 6 8 1 0 1 0 1 2 5 1 6 2 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 0 2 0 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 3 5 0 4 0 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 5 5 0 6 0 0 6 5 0 7 0 0 7 5 0 S R T , d

  17. ■ Current biological wastewater treatment Zero excess sludge MBR ≡ − ⎛ ⎞ Y C C ⎜ ⎟ MBR at , gMLVSS/L i e ⎝ ⎠ k HRT d

  18. ■ Current biological wastewater treatment The highest MLSS in practice ■ 5-Year Dutch MBR experience (2000-2005): preferably up to 10g/L while 20g/L unfavorable ■ Japan recommendations: 10g/L~20g/L * Building Research Institute, Ministry of Construction (1998) Design and management guidelines for the development of advanced onsite domestic wastewater treatment facilities using membrane filtration. Water and Waste 40(3):241-252.

  19. ■ Current biological wastewater treatment

  20. ■ Current biological wastewater treatment Yamamoto and Xing (2005) Zero Excess Sludge MBR, US Patent No. 11/070,134

  21. ■ Current biological wastewater treatment Removal Average, % Permeate Average COD 92.1% 12.6mg/L Nitrification 93% 1.3 as mgNH 3 -N/L deNitrification* 71.7% at R=300% 8.86 as mgTN/L Turbidity 99.9% 0.01NTU

  22. ■ Current biological wastewater treatment Case I: Tanzhou WWTP, Beijing (45,000m 3 /d in operation)

  23. ■ Current biological wastewater treatment Case II: Wenyuhe Reclamation Plant, Beijing(100,000m 3 /d)

  24. ■ Current biological wastewater treatment For anaerobic processes: For anaerobic processes: ■ Insufficient mixing ■ Limited 3-phase separation Major breakthrough: Major breakthrough: ■ IC Reactor Sludge digester= G1 Sludge digester= G1

  25. ■ Current biological wastewater treatment UASB= G2 IC= G3 UASB= G2 IC= G3

  26. ■ Current biological wastewater treatment COD6000~ COD1200~ IC Reactor IC Reactor 10000mg/L 2500mg/L Membrane (PP) Membrane (PP) Pukang Lincomycin Wastewater Treatment, Nanyang China (4,500m 3 /d) COD<300mg/ L

  27. ■ Promising R&D focuses (G4) ? ? (G4) ? (G3) ? MBR (G3) MBR + IC (G3) IC (G3) MBR (G2) MBR (G2) UASB (G2) UASB (G2) MBR (G1) MBR (G1) Digester(G1) Digester(G1)

  28. ■ Promising R&D focus 1. Enhanced mixing Anaerobic Anaerobic 2. Improved 3-phase separation Reactor (G4) Reactor (G4) 3. Lowered influent strength ?

  29. ■ Promising R&D focus 1. Significantly reduced kWh/m 3 treated 2. Preferably zero excess sludge MBR (G3) MBR (G3) 3. Integrated N and P removals 4. Extended filtration time

  30. ■ Promising R&D focus � Fouling control � Mixing effect Biogas, O 2 depleted air Anaerobic MBR (II) ?

  31. ■ Future R&D : a shift in concept ? Currently, ■ Nutrient removals ( i.e. N 、 P) ■ Excess sludge disposal ■ Water reclamation & Reuse Future, ■ Energy recovery ■ Sludge production ■ Water-mining

  32. ■ Future R&D : a shift in concept ? Biogas mining Wastewater Membrane 2 Anaerobic Aerobic Water Concentrator mining Reactor Reactor Water mining Membrane 1 Sludge mining Dual Membrane bioreactor ?

  33. ■ Concluding remarks (G4) (G4) MBR (G3) (G3) MBR IC (G3) IC (G3) + MBR (G2) MBR (G2) UASB (G2) UASB (G2) MBR (G1) MBR (G1) Digester(G1) Digester(G1)

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