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Thermal decomposition of the Thermal decomposition of the Thermal decomposition of the Thermal decomposition of the silicon photovoltaic cells silicon photovoltaic cells silicon photovoltaic cells silicon photovoltaic cells covered with EVA


  1. Thermal decomposition of the Thermal decomposition of the Thermal decomposition of the Thermal decomposition of the silicon photovoltaic cells silicon photovoltaic cells silicon photovoltaic cells silicon photovoltaic cells covered with EVA covered with EVA EVA and EVA and and ETFE and ETFE ETFE foil ETFE foil foil foil covered with covered with Krzysztof Pikoń , PhD, DSc Krzysztof Pikoń , PhD, DSc Silesian University of Technology Silesian University of Technology Gliwice, Poland Gliwice, Poland e-mail: krzysztof.pikon@polsl.pl e-mail: krzysztof.pikon@polsl.pl

  2. World development World development

  3. Global total material use Global total material use by resource type, 1900– by resource type, 1900– 2009 2009 European Environment Agency - Europa EU

  4. Development means … Development means …

  5. Waste Electrical and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Electronic Equipment (WEEE)

  6. Growth! Growth!

  7. The supply … The supply … Problem for EU Critical raw materials

  8. ONGOING EVOLUTION ONGOING EVOLUTION

  9. The future … The future … Zero emission

  10. The Challenge … The Challenge … Solar panels that were installed in around the millennium are expected to be ready for disposal by the early 2030’s it’s estimated there will be between 60-78 million tonnes of PV panel waste globally by 2050 (cumulative)

  11. The Challenge … The Challenge … Solar module layers are bonded together with polymers that make mechanical separation and treatment of solar module components almost impossible While the glass on a solar panel and its aluminium frame are relatively easy to recover, polymers used to bond a module’s various other components together can make recycling a headache

  12. The solution … The solution … Geltz Umwelt- Technologie Veolia in Rousset, France

  13. PV panels with dye PV panels with dye concentrator … concentrator …

  14. What are options? What are options? Up until now, there has not been any technical solution to recycle and separate the valuable materials from the mixed scrap. The critical step in the recycling process is therefore the destruction of the polymer layers,

  15. Thermal treatment? Thermal treatment?

  16. Materials Materials monocrystalline PV cell EVA layer saturated with perylene dye fjberglass reinforced laminate

  17. Materials Materials diameter of φ6.0 mm

  18. TGA - Thermogravimetric TGA - Thermogravimetric

  19. The pyrolysis The pyrolysis

  20. The products… The products…  As a result of pyrolysis, 46.86% weight loss was observed  As a result of pyrolysis, 46.86% weight loss was observed  The material balance from the pyrolysis process of 3 fractions is  The material balance from the pyrolysis process of 3 fractions is respectively 53.14% solid phase, 24.28% liquid phase, 22.58% gas phase. respectively 53.14% solid phase, 24.28% liquid phase, 22.58% gas phase.

  21. The concentrations: The concentrations: Br, Cl and F in the gas Br, Cl and F in the gas (above oil) (above oil) • Chromatographic analysis showed the presence of acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and traces of acrolein. • In addition, GC/FPD analysis was carried out, which showed that the tested sample does not contain sulphur compounds. Sample Element Concentrati number on [mg/l] Cl <0.40 Br P1/4 2.00 F 33.50

  22. Results of the quantitative Results of the quantitative analysis of the content of analysis of the content of polycyclic aromatic PAHs in the polycyclic aromatic PAHs in the oil oil Content Sampl Analytical Substance in the Content of e Markabilit extended determined in sample substance numbe y [mg] uncertainty the sample [mg/0,04 [mg/m 3 ] r [±mg] 5 m 3 ] T otal hydrocarbon P1/1 content calculated 136.76 0.02 n.d. 3039.11 as toluene Acenaftylen 18.96 0.02 2.838 3039.11 Naftalen 1.77 0.03 0.269 421.33 P1/2 Acenaften 79.42 0.03 15.79 39.33 Fluoren 0.010 0.01 0.001 1764.89

  23. LHV and moisture content LHV and moisture content of the carbonize of the carbonize Min. Max. 10,69 LHV [MJ/kg] 11,023 0,75 Moisture content 0,75 [%]

  24. Carbonization process Carbonization process

  25. Summary Summary  The need for PV panels waste recycling is increasing  The need for PV panels waste recycling is increasing  The problem of recycling of PV cells is a very complex,  The problem of recycling of PV cells is a very complex, especially due to the diversity of PV cells. especially due to the diversity of PV cells.  In the case of cells with a concentrator, the processing can be  In the case of cells with a concentrator, the processing can be even more complicated due to the content of harmful even more complicated due to the content of harmful substances. substances.  The high-temperature processes like pyrolysis, can help to solve  The high-temperature processes like pyrolysis, can help to solve this problem and demonstrate the high quality of end products. this problem and demonstrate the high quality of end products.  The analyse carried could be used in order to determine  The analyse carried could be used in order to determine possibilities of thermal treatment of PV panels as a form of its possibilities of thermal treatment of PV panels as a form of its utilization. utilization.  It showed that pyrolysis process and the resulting products  It showed that pyrolysis process and the resulting products require further chemical analysis to optimize the process and require further chemical analysis to optimize the process and places and forms of use of pyrolysis products. places and forms of use of pyrolysis products. More More details details information information in the in the article article… …

  26. Thank y ou for y our Thank y ou for y our attention... attention... The team: M. Bogacka, M. Potempa, D. Lewandowski, K. Pikoń, K. Klejnowska, P . Sobik.

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