Preventing Amputations In the Lower Extremities Of Patients With Diabetes
Several “steps” take place prior to the loss of a limb. The six steps are:- Diabetes, Neuropathy Ulceration Vascular disease Infection and amputation. Each of these steps is preventable and one can take action to prevent the patient from escalating to the next step.
Treatment – Multifocal Approach Thorough history Optimising glycaemic control Vascular supply ~ ABI = 0.45 referral Aggressive wound debridement Infection control Maintaining wound moisture control Appropriate offloading
Diabetes Foot Screening and Risk Stratification Tool
Glycemic Control & vascular stasis Control blood glucose -imperative healing chronic wounds. Hyperglycemia results – leukocyte dysfunction, suppression lymphocytes. Requires adequate tissue oxygenation = well vascularized wound bed = new granulation tissue
Smoking Smoking greatest impact on PAD Cessation is the cornerstone of PAD treatment
Caution Debridement Surgical debridement – inappropriate for ulcers with vascular insufficient vascular supply – extreme Caution On patients on anticoagulants.
Emphasizing The Value Of Risk Stratification and Preventative measures. Frequency visits depends on the severity of the abnormality and the degree of intervention necessary to control ulcer risk. Some hemorrhagic keratosis require weekly, biweekly – monthly. Debridement is extremely effective preventing ulceration. infection, hospitalization and amputation.
Compromised sensory perception L.O.P .S – localized pressure, leading to tissue ischaemia and ulceration. PN- high risk impaired balance and gait. Loss somatosensory afferents from peripheral neuropathy =increased risk ulceration balance and gait control.
Initial Care for referred patient Vascular - if pedal pulses are not palpable , we order non – invasive arterial studies and obtain vascular consult based results. Neurological exam. X-ray rule out osteomyelitis and assess deformity that might be contributing to the wound. Infection antibiotic management.
The Effects Of ESRD On Patients With Diabetes Dialysis is an independent risk factor for ulceration. A 2x increase in the prevalence of other lower extremity complications such as peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and amputations in dialysis-treated patients. Found an increase in foot ulcerations in patients with ESRD. A 4X increase in diabetic foot complications, defined as infection, gangrene and amputation.
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) Kidney disease increases the risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) 3X in comparison to patients without renal disease but the severity of PAD worsens as kidney disease progresses.
The Effects Of ESRD On Patients With PAD Calciphylaxis is a thrombolytic event that provokes ischaemia and tissue infarction. Common lower extremities. Begin painful red areas that develop into indurated plaques followed by eschar, ulceration and gangrene. One year mortality rate > 50% often 2 nd to sepsis deriving ulcers.
Diagnosing DFO: Current Methods Clinical (for osteomyelitis) ➢ History: long wound duration, recurrent infection ➢ Exam deep large(>2cm 2 ) ulcer, bony prominence, visible bone/joint, “sausage” toe ➢ Probe-to bone: useful if done and interpreted correctly ➢ Blood tests: WBC, ESR, C-RP , ? Biomarkers
Clinical Classification Diabetic Foot Infection IWGDF PEDIS Clinical Manifestations* IDSA Severity No purulence or inflammation Uninfected 1 (erythema, pain, warmth, tenderness, or induration) Infected(>=signs/sx inflammation) Mild 2 But erythema ,=2cm around ulcer, infection limited to skin or superficial subcutaneous tissues >=1 of following: cellulitis>2cm Moderate 3 Lymphangitis; subQ spread Deep abscess; gangrene; Muscle, tendon, joint or bone involved Systematic toxicity or metabolic instability Severe 4
Motor neuropathy ➢ Atrophy of the short extensor muscle. ➢ Atrophy of the intrinsic muscles of the arch. ➢ Hammer toe deformities ➢ Hallux valgus deformity ➢ Gait instability ➢ Falls
Diabetic Motor Neuropathy Charcot feet – heel walk – cannot raise toes Tibilas anterior weakness- Foot slap
Inactive Charcot Foot When there is no inflamation it is inactive
Thermography Diagnosis of Charcot's foot is supported, where available, by the use of thermography, which will show a skin temperature of 2-8°C higher than the contralateral foot.
Early Active Charcot Misdiagnosis Cellulitis, Gout, Deep venous thrombosis.
Evaluating Equinus Silfverskiold Test
Equinus Equinus – the most profound casual agent in foot pathomechanics Life threatening significantly increases risk of diabetic foot ulcer Refer orthopaedic surgeon Diabetic foot clinic
Equinus Treatment Debridement wound Offloading – moonboot Tendo-achilles lengthening to heal a diabetic fore-foot ulcer Refer orthopaedic surgeon for surgery options Conservative prior ulceration – manual stretching – night splints
Neuropathic Diabetic Wound One should initially consider the “VIPs” (vascular, infection and pressure). Increased plantar pressure is a common reason for non-healing of ulcerations. Equinus deformity
Diabetic neuropathic wound Damaged nerve impulses control muscles ie motor nerves. Pain , touch or positional sense ie sensory nerves. As a result of peripheral neuropathy they may develop other sequelae, including an increased risk of falling.
Ulceration This is due to loss of plantarflexory function of the gastrocnemius muscle and subsequent overload at the plantar heel in gait. An ankle foot (AFO) or orthotics with extra – depth shoe can be appropriate in some cases Meticulous wound management, including debridement. Vascular surgeon consult – revascularization. The knee walker scooter moonboot. AFO – orthotics modification remains healed .
Ulceration - treatment
Digital amputation significant indicator of future leg loss Loss digits alternation of osseous architecture of foot, resulting in changes pressure location new areas osseous prominence >PRESSURE – ulceration – infection AMPUTATION. Multiple hospitalizations and re – operations
Preventing Diabetic foot Recurrence After achieving healing Appropriate shoe gear Orthotics or bracing to help prevent recurrence Therapeutic footwear in those with severe foot deformity Refer surgeon Distal toes tenotomy Charcot reconstruction Achilles lengthening I frequently get orthotics to get rocker soled shoes, metatarsal pads and accommodation under the affected areas.
Emphasizing appropriate Shoegear And Patient Education Evaluation and management of minor trauma triggers like foot deformity, pressure callus and undetected injury may prevent amputation Encourage compliance with diabetes control Emphasize the importance of visual foot exams at home.
Emphasizing appropriate Shoegear And Patient Education Pressure relieving shoes and orthotics help lower risk amputation Educate patients every visit Explain the potential impact of neuropathy
Current interventions to address gait and balance diabetic peripheral neuropathy improve the motor control of gait and balance for patients to walk safely. Physiotherapy – guided training Postural control training Custom insoles – enhance balance control in individuals with neuropathy. There is a need to improve, restore or replace inputs regarding plantar pressure proprioception to
SurroGait Rx Wearable technology has a potential benefit high – risk population.
Treatment Offloading the wound. Surgical shoes Casts TCC Crutches Walkers Wheelchairs
Flexor tenotomy – distal tip toes diabetic neuropathy A full thickness ulcer 4x6mm, a slight hyperkeratotic rim with red granular base positive probing bone Radiographic findings cortical disruption -concern osteomyelitis Oral antibiotics started. The triad of diabetic neuropathy Hammertoe deformity and repetitive trauma resulted ulceration in this patient Digital amputation most common foot amputation – eradicate infection
Subungual squamous cell carcinoma of the nail bed. Presentation fingernail and a linear pigmented streak below right hallux nail plate. Dermatologist review – following day placed dermatology clinic. Review radiographs for underlying osseous change.
Subungual squamous cell carcinoma of the nail bed. Nail plate avulsion and 3mm punch biopsy. This case study remains under review as nail bed abnormality high risk non- healing with her diabetes and confirmation of pathology dermatologist – benign. In discussion dermatologist high risk – rerefer Urgent review change pigment change nail matrix.
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