major recorded hab related events in malaysia 2014 2016

Major recorded HABrelated events in Malaysia: 20142016 Po T e e n - PowerPoint PPT Presentation T o wa rd the future d e ve lo pme nt o f HAB sc ie nc e in the We ste rn Pa c ific Wha t we kno w, a nd wha t we d o no t kno w o n HABs Major recorded HABrelated events in Malaysia: 20142016 Po T e

  1. T o wa rd the future d e ve lo pme nt o f HAB sc ie nc e in the We ste rn Pa c ific – Wha t we kno w, a nd wha t we d o no t kno w o n HABs Major recorded HAB‐related events in Malaysia: 2014‐2016 Po T e e n L IM H.C. L im, S.T . T e ng , K .S. Hii, T .H. T a n, N.F . K o n, R. Ra za li, S.N. T a n, W.L .S L a u, I . K . L a w, G.R. L io w, N.I . Musta pa , H.L . Yo ng , H.H. E r, Z.F . L im, L .K . L e e , Gire s Usup, Chui Pin L e a w UM, T ARUC, UNI MAS, UKM


  3. ua nta n Po rt PSP inc id e nts in K

  4. PSP incidents in Kuantan Port • Nov 2013: 3 were hospitalized • Aug 2014: 10 hospitalized; shellfish toxicity up to 3,500 µg STX/100g (DoF) • Sept 2014: Alexandrium = 1000 cells/L

  5. Causative organism of PSP incidents in Kuantan was later confirmed as A . tamiyavanichii based on morphology, molecular detection and the toxin profile. Research monitoring effort: 2015‐2016 • No recurrence of bloom, • Low densities Liow et al. (in prep)

  6. PSP inc id e nt in Sung a i Ge ting

  7. Surve y re sults fro m the 2015 b lo o m e ve nt Ale xandrium minutum Sa xito xins-pro d uc ing po pula tio n wa s c o nfirme d b y sxtA q PCR a ssa y

  8. Law et al. (in prep) 3 × 10 7 Alexandrium (cells L ‐1 ) 1 × 10 7 4 × 10 6 0.5 × 10 6 1 × 10 6 1 × 10 5 R e gulator y c losur e 200 – 1000 c e lls/L

  9. Closur e thr e shold 80  g ST X in 100g me at

  10. Ce ll de nsity <100 c e lls/L fo r at le ast 2 we e ks Closur e thr e shold 80  g ST X in 100g me at

  11. Research monitoring effort • Recurrence of blooms: – March and September 2016

  12. to re c urre t b lo o m? Ca use


  14. Fish kill Events • Caused millions losses in finfish mariculture. • Mechanisms of fish kill: – mucus compound at gills; – low oxygen level in water due to (Source: Sinchew Daily, 2005) degradation of blooms; – production of ammonia by certain dinoflagellate species. • Focus : HAB‐related fish kills

  15. Economic losses Source: Sinchew Daily (23 Dec 2014)

  16. ish kills a lo ng the Jo ho r Stra it F

  17. Massive Fish kills in 2014 • Fish kill incident happened, started on Feb 11, 2014; became more serious on the following three subsequent days. • It last for at least two weeks. Fish kill incident Massive fish kills Field sampling started. reported in the conducted. press. e b 11 e b 14-16 e b 20-23 F F F

  18. E c onomic Impac t Type of affected cages cultured fishes : ‐ Red Snapper ( Lutjanus sp.) ‐ Estuary Cod ( Epinephelus coioides ) ‐ Seabass/Siakap ( Lates calcarifer ) ‐ Paddletail Snapper ( Lutjanus gibbus ) ‐ Fourfinger Threadfin ( Eleutheronema tradactylum ) Aquaculture losses: >100 tonnes of fishes from 10 Fish farms (western Johor strait) *Losses estimated in a farm about RM150,000 (The Star, 2014).

  19. Sampling area Number of net‐cage farm: 8‐9

  20. Cell compositions Cell density of Karlodinium on 21 st February at West Johor Strait: 1‐2.3 × 10 6 cells L ‐1 Comparable to K . veneficum blooms in Chesapeake Bay, USA: 6 × 10 7 cells L ‐1 (Deeds, 2003)

  21. T he una rmo re d d ino fla g e lla te Karlodinium australe Lim et al. 2014 ( Harmful Algae )

  22. F ish Ne c r opsy Lim et al. 2014 ( Harmful Algae ) • protruding eyes/reddening of the iris • discolored and skin sloughing • damaged gills, slightly brownish cast • fins reddened at the base Symptoms of karlotoxin ichthyotoxicity

  23. Recurrent bloom in 2015

  24. Recurrent bloom in 2015 • Mass mortality of farmed fishes (and broodstock of fishes) and wild‐demersal fishes. • Unarmored Karlodinium ‐like cells dominated the samples, with maximum cell densities up to 2×10 8 cells/L. Species identity was later confirmed as K. australe by single cell PCR and qPCR method. Teng et al. 2016 ( Harmful Algae News )

  25. Ma ssive mo rta lity o f wild fishe s a lo ng the no rthe a ste rn Pe ninsula r Ma la ysia

  26. March 2016 Sources: Metro and The Stars Lau et al. 2016 ( In prep )

  27. F ish Ne c r opsy Lau et al. 2016 ( In prep )

  28. Chattonella sp . Bachok (new ribotype) Cell density in the water >1.5 x 10 5 cells L ‐1 Lau et al. 2016 ( In prep )

  29. Other blooms 3 May 2016 : Ceratium furca – Sg. Geting, Tumpat

  30. Other blooms 2016 : Pseudo‐nitzschia brasilliana Tok Bali‐Sg. Semerak estuary Peridinium quinquecorne

  31. Ca pa c ity b uild ing • Aug 2014: 3 rd National workshop on HAB and biotoxins • Nov 2015 : A workshop on national shellfish sanitation program was held to finalize the documentation of SOP on HAB and shellfish monitoring. • July 2016 : A workshop on fish kill was organized by Fisheries Department as a preparation for the staffs in the events of fish kill in aquaculture area.

  32. Ca pa c ity Build ing Th e 3 rd N a t io n a l HA Bs a n d Bio t o x in s W o rksh o p 1 2 ‐ 1 5 A u g u s t 2 0 1 4

  33. Summary • HABs is one of the threat to mariculture industries; HABs species involved are diverse in nature (mechanism of fish kills) and effects. • SOP is needed in dealing with occurrence of HABs and fish kills incidences (before, during and after). • Site selection, control of farmed organisms, carrying capacity and good farming practices are important for sustainable mariculture industries. • Long term and systematic capacity building should be developed to address the national and regional needs. Strengthen collaborations between countries and information sharing are crucial to mitigate the transboundary issues of HABs.


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