immunity amp vaccination

Immunity & Vaccination John Helps BVetMed CertSAM MRCVS Senior Technical Manager- CABU Overview Immune system Vaccines and vaccination Nobivac Vaccine range The Immune System Innate Immunity Acquired Immunity Humoral

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  1. Immunity & Vaccination John Helps BVetMed CertSAM MRCVS Senior Technical Manager- CABU

  2. Overview • Immune system • Vaccines and vaccination • Nobivac Vaccine range

  3. The Immune System • Innate Immunity • Acquired Immunity • Humoral • Cell Mediated • Passive Immunity

  4. Innate Immunity • Immediate and rapidly activated • Non specific response WBCs and proteins, • Inflammation • Surfaces in direct contact with the environment • Not stimulated by vaccines

  5. Acquired or adaptive Immunity • Specific response and has memory • Cells present in spleen, LNs, body surfaces and bloodstream • Involves active surveillance • Subsequent exposure to same infective agent provides a fast and more powerful adaptive immune response • Two key functional divisions: humoral and cell–mediated

  6. Humoral Immunity Th • B-lymphocytes and plasma cells, (supported by T-helper cells) B • Production of Antibodies: Pla • Block receptor binding • Opsonise for phagocytosis • Complement-mediated lysis • Agglutination • Neutralisation

  7. Cell Mediated Immunity • Th-cells, NK cells, Cytotoxic Tc-cells cells Th • Cytotoxic destruction of infected target cells • Induction of apoptosis NK Tc • Cytokine mediated process • Regulatory T-cells

  8. Measuring immune response • Variable correlation of protection between circulating Ab and protection against infection: Good Weaker/Poor CDV FCV CAV FHV CPV CPi FPV Bb Leptospirosis • What cut-off titre and what serological test? • Gold standard measure is controlled challenge

  9. Passive Immunity • Derived from transfer of antibodies- humoral transfer only • Maternally derived antibody • Passive immunisation • Antisera • Antitoxins • Rapid effect but no memory and rapidly wanes

  10. Types: Passive Immunity Active Immunity Maternally Derived Natural Exposure to Antibody Infection Natural Humoral Only Humoral and Cell Mediated Response Antisera Vaccines Antitoxins Artificial Humoral Only Humoral +/- Cell Mediated Response

  11. Aims of Vaccination • To protect the individual from lethal or disease producing infections • To protect populations • Herd Immunity • Economic Benefits • To prevent human disease

  12. Types of vaccine • Live vaccines • Virulent • Attenuated (e.g. MLV) • Apathogenic • Heterologous • Inactivated vaccines • Inactivated/killed • Others • Sub-unit vaccines • Gene deletion vaccines • Vectored vaccines

  13. Live Vaccines • Live organism which can infect cells and replicate but not induce pathology or disease • After injection travels to relevant sites in the body • Virulent • Orf • Attenuated • CPV, CAV, CDV • FCV, FHV, FPV • Heterologous

  14. Inactivated & Recombinant Vaccines • Antigenically intact but don’t replicate/infect cells • Inactivated • Nobivac Lepto2/ L4 • Nobivac Rabies • Sub unit vaccines • Nobivac FeLV • Gene deletion vaccines Recombinant • Equilis StrepE • Nobivac Myxo-RHD • Vectored vaccines • Nobivac Myxo-RHD

  15. Live vs inactivated vaccines? Live Inactivated Broad immunity: Good humoral response in many cases Usually CMI + Humoral +/- CMI Rapid onset Slower onset Single dose may be effective Multiple doses for optimum effect Longer DOI? Shorter DOI? No need for adjuvant Often adjuvanted Better in the face of MDA May be more difficult to break through MDA Reversion to virulence? No concern about residual virulence

  16. Primary vaccination

  17. Response to vaccination varies Factors that can mitigate against an optimum response: • Genetic factors • Parasitism • Health and Nutrition • Age • Concurrent medication • Stress • Biological Variation • MDA levels

  18. Vaccination and MDA

  19. Nobivac Vaccine Range

  20. Nobivac offers the broadest range of small animal vaccines Allows practices flexibility to choose a fully supported modern tailored approach to vaccination… Nobivac DHPPi Nobivac Tricat Trio Nobivac DHP Nobivac Ducat Nobivac Lepto 2 Nobivac FeLV Nobivac L4 Nobivac Bb for cats Nobivac Pi Nobivac Parvo-C Nobivac Myxo-RHD Nobivac KC Nobivac Rabies

  21. Key Canine Infectious Diseases • Distemper • Infectious Canine Hepatitis • Parvovirus • Leptospirosis • Infectious canine tracheobronchitis • Rabies

  22. Industry leading options on protocols • Choice of DHPPi or DHP for the core components from as early as 6 weeks • Choice of L4 and Lepto2 for leptospirosis – use from as early as 6 weeks • Bivalent intranasal Nobivc KC for optimum control of Bb and Pi from 3 weeks of age • Standalone Parvo-C vaccine- option from 4 weeks of age where increased risk of parvovirus is anticipated in puppies • Efficacy in the face of expected levels of MDA which allows a minimum finish of 10 weeks • All canine vaccines licensed for use during pregnancy

  23. Core Components DHP • Live attenuated vaccine components • 3 Year DOI • OOI 1 week • Use from 6 weeks • 10 week minimum finish • C154 strain gives a prevention of shedding claim for our parvovirus vaccines for the full 3 year duration of immunity • Parvo cross protection vs CPV 2a, 2b, 2c

  24. Nobivac Lepto 2 and L4 • Inactivated non-adjuvanted • Annual revaccination recommended • Reduction of infection and urinary excretion Serogroup Coverage Lepto 2 L4 (representative serovar) Canicola Icterohaemorrhagiae Australis Grippotyphosa

  25. Nobivac L4 European leptospirosis vaccine 4 key serogroups dominate reports from clinical case submissions: • Australis (esp. Bratislava) • Icterohaemorrhagiae (incl. Copenhageni) • Canicola • Grippotyphosa

  26. VLA seropositive results from clinical case submissions (4 years to 2011) copenhageni 15.1% 3.8% canicola 39.8% 7.6% bratislava 11.7% icterohaemorrhagiae 22.0% australis others

  27. Nobivac Lepto Vaccine Quality/testing • Low BSA formulation (“Vaccipure” technology) • Helps minimise risk of hypersensitivity reactions • Nobivac L4 was the first vaccine to benefit from in-vitro batch quality testing • Antigenic mass ELISA developed by MSD as part of its commitment to “3Rs” • Avoids the need for laboratory animals in batch quality testing

  28. Nobivac KC • Live attenuated Bb and CPiV • Use from 3 weeks • OOI Bb 72 hours and CPiV 3 weeks • DOI 12 months

  29. Nobivac Pi • Live attenuated vaccine, “non-core” antigen • Use from 8 weeks with a minimum finish of 10 weeks • Single dose sufficient primary course from 12 weeks • SPC OOI 4 weeks • Annual booster option where Nobivac KC not used

  30. Nobivac Rabies • Inactivated vaccine • Use from 3 months (from 4 weeks) • Dogs, cats – also data on ferrets • DOI 3 years, (ferrets 18 months) • Compatibility data allows concurrent use in dogs/cats • Purchase of Nobivac vaccines linked to Afya Project vaccine provision

  31. Licensed combination/concurrent use • DHP, Parvo-C Lepto 2, L4, Rabies , KC • DHPPi , Pi Lepto 2, L4 and Rabies • KC DHP, Lepto 2 and L4 • Rabies DHPPi, DHP and Lepto 2

  32. Feline Infectious Diseases ● Feline herpesvirus ● Feline calicivirus ● Feline panleucopaenia ● Feline leukaemia ● Bordetella bronchiseptica ● (Chlamydophila felis)

  33. Nobivac Cat Vaccines • Nobivac Tricat Trio • Nobivac Ducat • Nobivac FeLV • Nobivac Bb • Nobivac Rabies

  34. Industry leading choice and flexibility • Modified live vaccines efficacious in face of expected levels of MDA • Early use of Nobivac Ducat from 6 weeks where early risk of FURTD is anticipated • Use of Nobivac Bb from 4 weeks of age • Extended DOI for FPL for 3 years

  35. Nobivac Tricat Trio • Live attenuated FCV, FHV & FPV • Use from 8-9 weeks • Minimum 12 week finish • OOI* FCV & FHV 4 weeks, FPV 3 weeks • DOI FCV & FHV 1 year, FPV 3 years • Feline panleucopaenia (FPL) MW-1 strain offers a full three years duration of immunity

  36. Nobivac FeLV • Recombinant vaccine • From 8 weeks of age • OOI 2 weeks • DOI 1 year • Unique epitope purity (p45 antigen) • Offers active immunisation vs persistent viraemia and associated clinical signs

  37. Extended 3 year DOI Cat Vaccination Protocol (for Feline Panleucopaenia)

  38. Nobivac Myxo-RHD • Unique live bivalent myxoma vectored RHD vaccine available since 2013 • Non-adjuvanted • 1ml subcutaneous vaccination • Single dose primary course • Minimum age 5 weeks • 12 months DOI for both components

  39. Vaccine Guidelines

  40. Vaccination in practice • SPCs/ Datasheets • Vaccine protocols and guidelines • Safety- increasing focus • Disease risks • Surveillance • Communication • Risk/benefit analysis • Renewed focus on wellbeing and preventative health

  41. Any Questions?? • TPS team • call 01908 685685 • or fax 01908 685606 • •

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