illicit arms trafficking and the south sudanese conflict

Illicit Arms Trafficking and the South Sudanese Conflict Personals - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Illicit Arms Trafficking and the South Sudanese Conflict Personals -Was always inherently interested in conflict, the larger implications of it, how it affected the individual, and how conflict itself has transformed over the course of history

  1. Illicit Arms Trafficking and the South Sudanese Conflict

  2. Personals -Was always inherently interested in conflict, the larger implications of it, how it affected the individual, and how conflict itself has transformed over the course of history into its modern context today. -These interests were solidified through a childhood friend, Adake, who was himself a child soldier during the 2006-09 War in Somalia. -Both the fields of history and political science were enough for a little while, but unfortunately when I arrived at St. Olaf I realized settling for either or both of these would not be enough. Consequently, I decided to create an independent program specifically focused on conflict theory and its many facets.

  3. Transformation and Growth of the Major -Began in its simplest form as studying the historical aspects of conflict as well as the effects war and conflict has on the individual, how these effects manifest themselves. -This quickly began to devolve into an unorganized psychology major. -Took it back to basics to examine conflict as a modern theory, broken up into conglomerating subsets coming together for the purpose of showing the complex and constantly evolving nature of human conflict. -As I found the specific case study which I wanted to look at, I found that many of these subsets would not fit into the conventional notions of warfare. -It is because of this that I found the matter of illicit arms trafficking to be worth investigation, as a good/commodity that seems to tie into almost every facet of the South Sudanese conflict, even potentially driving it.

  4. The history of SS (Pre-2011) -South Sudan was originally part of the Islamic Republic of Sudan, which was once held as a colony under the British Empire. -From 1955 to 1972, the Sudanese government fought the Anyanya rebel army during the First Sudanese Civil War, followed by the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) in the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005), which was led by John Garang de Mabior until his death in 2005. -These wars were fought primarily due to persecution from the Muslim majority north towards the Christian majority South. (Human rights abuses, voting rights, no say in governance or infrastructure) -By even the conservative estimates, more than 2.5 million people were killed during this time with millions more becoming refugees both within and outside the country. -Upon Dr. Garang’s death, his deputy successor, Salva Kiir Mayardit was appointed Dr. John Garang de Mabior, first President of President of South Sudan, with Riek Machar being sworn in as Vice-President. South Sudan, and regarded as most influential person in the history of South Sudan.

  5. History of SS (2011-13) -January of 2011 a referendum was held determining the legal status of South Sudan as a separate state. This ultimately passed with 98.83% of the population in favor of secession. Officially took effect on the 9th of July, 2011, becoming the 54th independent African country to date. -Immediately the GoSS had to contend with at least seven armed groups in 9 of its 10 states. All fighting over various beliefs (Many Inter-ethnic conflicts which predated the wars of independence). As well as those supported by the Sudanese government meant to destabilize the new country. (Most infamous group being the LRA) -South Sudan held 75% of Sudan’s oil reserves. Regions of Abyei and South Kordofan are therefore heavily disputed and claimed by both the GoSS and the GoS, leading to the South Kordofan conflict breaking out and still continuing today. South Sudanese girl at independence festivities

  6. History of SS (2013) -On the 16 of December, 2013, the President of the Republic of South Sudan, Salva Kiir Mayardit, appeared on state television in military uniform to announce that he had successfully put down a coup attempt in the capital, Juba. Still doubtful whether any actual coup attempt took place. -Government claims said the coup was led by former Vice-President Riek Machar and several ex-cabinet ministers and officials of the ruling Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM), including Rebecca Garang, the widow of John Garang. Machar claimed he was not aware of any coup attempt, but instead blamed Kiir for fabricating such allegations of a coup in order to settle political scores and target political opponents. -Did not take long for fighting to break out in Juba, and then spread throughout the country from there. Salva Kiir Mayardit Riek Machar

  7. The Civil War -Reported that Salva Kiir's personal unit, whether in the uniform of the Presidential Guard or in uniforms of other units including the police, went through largely Nuer neighbourhoods and carried out both indiscriminate killings and targeted murders of specific individuals. Significant because this unit reports directly to Kiir instead of the military -This killing of civilians in Juba led to revenge killings of Dinka by Nuer in other parts of the country. -Entire conflict has had ethnic undertones due to Kiir being Dinka and Machar being Nuer, (the two largest groups in S-Sudan) this is a major oversimplification, with heavy ethnic crossover being found on either side, just as in any issue. -Fighting broke out between the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and SPLM-IO, igniting the civil war. In the beginning, Ugandan troops were deployed to fight alongside the South Sudanese government. Members of South Sudan’s Presidential Guard. This unit reports directly to the President as opposed to any military hierarchy.

  8. The Civil War/Current Conflict -August 2015, Both Kiir and Machar signed the “Compromise Peace Agreement" mediated by Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD). The agreement would’ve made Riek Machar the vice-president again. -Less than a year later, violence broke out in Juba after Dinka soldiers began targeting ethnic Nuers, causing Machar to flee and call for an armed uprising against Kiir once again. -After an independent report into UNMISS's (United Nation Mission in South Sudan) failure to protect civilians in the Juba clashes, acting commander Lt. General Johnson Mogoa Kimani Ondieki was fired, leading to a withdrawal of over 1,000 Kenyan peacekeeping personnel. -Infighting within the pastoralist communities continue unchecked, with different tribes fighting each other over matters of resources, land, and traditional cattle raiding practices. Kids having fun on top of abandoned trailer outside UN compound in Juba.

  9. The Civil War/Current Conflict (cont) -Riek Machar continues to maintain overall command of the operations of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army in Opposition (SPLA-IO), although his isolation in South Africa has limited to some degree his day-to-day oversight. -Machar and his followers have repeatedly rejected invitations to attend meetings with IGAD and other regional actors focused on ending the war. They claim they refuse to entertain peace processes until Machar is free to return from South Africa. -2016 and 2017, the SPLA counter-insurgency campaign in Wau and in the surrounding areas in Western Bahr el-Ghazal has targeted civilians on ethnic grounds, internally displacing over 100,000 people. -As of January 2018, the vast majority of the fighting has been taking place in Yei River State. -Most recent development of April 2018, it was announced the launch of a new rebel group named South Sudan United Front (SS-UF), funnily enough no one is sure who they’re fighting quite yet.

  10. The open question of arms -From personal experience, weapons within South Sudan are as common as food is in the United States. They are everywhere, readily available, and ultimately seem to be the driving force behind everything happening within the country. -Illicit firearms trade is an old practice in S-Sudan, particularly in the areas bordering Ethiopia, Kenya, Congo, and Uganda. The flow of firearms into South Sudan has always been attributed to either Civil Wars (1955-1972), to cattle raiding by pastoral communities, and now more recently, because of the abundance of untapped oil reserves. -Began with formation of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement and Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLM/SPLA) who quickly received military assistance from socialist bloc countries who wished to influence their already socialist-leaning sloganeering. -The demand and availability became so great that Civil population soon only accepted rifles and ammunition in lieu of money for food and other necessities -Later, during the 90’s most small and light weapons could be traced back to Sudan as influxes distributed to the population, militias, and terrorist organizations as part of their destabilization programs.

  11. The open question of arms (cont) -There are a plethora of reasons why weapons took hold so well in South Sudan those being either due to the continuous conflicts over the years, lack of governance, and cultural factors. -Governance has always been either very weak or non-existent. Partly due to overemphasis on militarism and militarization. The SPLM/A has not succeeded in building effective governmental systems [military or civil] and therefore indiscipline and insecurity is widespread. -Because of this, senior officers and soldiers very often steal weapons from stores or colleagues along the way for future profits from selling. -This informal policy has triggered the emergence of strong men (some of whom are now in higher echelons of govt.) who have a vested interest in the continuation of a low intensity conflict with no prospects for peace. Road leading to local arms market. Was unable to openly carry camera beyond this point due to natural dangers.

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