CARTOGRAPHY OF RISKS AND VULNÉRABILITY IN UNION OF COMOROS Djanfar MADJIDI National Disasters Management Organization Union of Comoros Contact: email@example.com Seychelles, 23th september 2016
HISTORICAL • Introduction • Like other countries of the world, The Union of Comoros had living a long history of great disasters and accidents which resulted lost of life and materiel damages. • The disasters are manifesting mainly by: • - Cyclones/ Tropical tempests; • - Rainstorms that bring floods, and landslide; • - Water sea mouvements; • - Fire(urban areas and forests); • - Epidemic deases; • - Air and maritim accidents; • - Social conflicts; • - Polotical crises… • The Comoros live also with higher level of piracy,tsunami…etc.
HUMANITARIAN CONSÉQUENCES FOR APRIL 2012 FLOODS 10 % of the population are directly affected ; • 1,618 personnes are displaced ; • 23.036 studants without scools ; • Upgrad of vulnerability for weak population; • •
HUMANITARIAN CONSÉQUENCES FOR APRIL 2012 FLOODS Deficiency of potable water • Limited access for health treatement; • Upgrad hydric deases and epidemic risk; • Alimentary insécurity risk ; • Malnutrition on pregnant women and children; •
CONSEQUENCES IN INFRASTRUCTURES, CONSEQUENCES IN INFRASTRUCTURES, • Pumping water station and adduction systèm are affected;
CONSEQUENCES IN CONSEQUENCES IN INFRASTRUCTURES, INFRASTRUCTURES, 22 km of road and bridges to build;
LANDSLIDE AFFECTED THE R LANDSLIDE AFFECTED THE ROAD AD
CONSEQUENCES IN INFRASTRUCTURES, CONSEQUENCES IN INFRASTRUCTURES, 54 affected schools; • 567 habitations are affected and 118 completly distroyed; • 32% affected hospitals and the main equipments; •
CONSEQUENCES IN CONSEQUENCES IN AGRICUL RICULTURE URE AND AND FARMER RMER ANIMALS ANIMALS • Many animals died and Agriculture lands damaged.
CYCLONES HISTORICAL IN UNION OF COMOROS Years évents The most important of tropic cyclones recorded in Comoros. 524 death and 75 1950 000 coconut palms uprooted. Catastrophic statement of accounts on Anjouan and Moheli Tropic cyclone on Grande Comore et particularly on the north of the island. Wrecking 1959 of «NDJEMA » at Moroni port, The captain was dead. Cyclone ELINAH Anjouan à 11:00, January 11th,patrol boat drifting and many curious personnes are precipitating portward in Mutsamudu; 3 continuous waves from 23 to 25 elevation mèters are sweepping them; 3 deaths, 9 surviving personnes and 30 vanished personnes, 52 wounded personnes, 5 000 personnes are affected, 805 houses and 1983 buildings are affected. On the districts of MOYA, KONI, JIMILIME and POMONI 60% of huts are broken. In Mutsamudu, some old buildings are falled. Road SIMA – POMONI completly damaging;
CYCLONES HISTORICAL IN UNION OF COMOROS • 1994 Cyclone NADIA , wrecking of ZAZAKELI 2 1996 Tempst DOLORESSE , rainstorms, landslide, wrecking of NIATI SWAFA 67 deaths in Moheli. 1998 Rainstorms (163 mm in 24 hr), landslide 1999 Rainstorms , Cholera Dec. 2002 Strong storms ( intertropical convergence area ) crash LET UVP 9X ‐ RRB faisant 2 deads and 15 blessés wounded personnes Avr. 2003 Forte précipitations with an air of storm on the Comorian archipelago , Jan. 2004 Tropical tempest ELITA Mar. 2004 Tropical cyclone GAFILO, SAMSON wrecking .
CYCLONES HISTORICAL IN UNION OF COMOROS Jan.2005 Moderate tropical tempest ERNEST Feb.2006 Moderate tropical tempest BOLOETSA Déc.2006 Tropical cyclone BONDO Mar.2006 Tropical tempest DIWA Mai 2006 Episode rainy ‐ floods BAMBAO Apr.2009 Tropical tempest JADE and episode rainy
VULNÉRABILITY IN COMOROS Based essentielly on: - Lack of Knowledge ; ‐ Delicate economy; ‐ Preventive measurment on risk are not realy integrated in decision maker;
PHYSICAL VULNERABILITY Insular context : ‐ Islands serounding by water; • ‐ Strong exposition to the météorological hazardousness • ‐ Tropical perturbation; Geographic context • Relief : mountainous – coastwise plain; • Population mainly concentrated on the coast areas; • • Absence of permanent watercourses on Grande • Comore island; • Volcanic island : working volcano, KARTHALA on the island of Grande Comoros ( The one that has the bigest carter in the word).
HUMAN VULNERABILITY Density and concentration of the population • – IN GRANDE COMORE ISLAND : • • 360 hab/km² ; • • Great concentration of population in Moroni and adjacents towns ; • – IN ANJOUAN ISLAND: • • Implantation of villages on the hills; • • 575 hab / km² ; ‐ 600 to 800 hab/km² in the district of Nyumakelé (south of Anjouan) • • – IN MOHÉLI ISLAND : • ‐ 123,3 hab/km² • The population is mostly concentrated in Fomboni (the main city of the island); • Majority of the population is rural (64 %)
MATERIAL VULNERABILITY • roads : • Roads grid deteriorated; • Not much disengagement routes; Îsland Superficies Perfect roads Praticable roads Grande Comore 1024 Km2 289 Km 131,5 Km Anjouan 424 Km2 180 Km 63 Km Moheli 211 Km2 84 Km 14 Km
SOCIO ‐ ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY • Port infrastructures : • – Each island has a port; • – The International one is located in Anjouan island. Airoports infrastructures : • • – Each island has an airport; • - The international one is located in Moroni. • Terrestrial transport mediums: – Individual transport : few homes have a personal vehicle (5 % • on average in the archipelago) • – Public transport : taxis and bus.
ENVIRONMENTAL VULNERABILITY • Natural spaces protected : • – Grande Comoros Island: Forest of Karthala, ecological niche of coelacanthe; • – Anjouan Island: Mount Tringui, peninsula of Bimbini, lake of Dzialandzé; • – Mohéli : Marine park and Boudouni lake. • Weak ecosystèms : mangroves and coral reefs
ON GOING • National data base; • Cartographic of the vulnerable areas; • Disposition taken to react in real time; • Sensibilsation and motivation of the population; • Training for prevention goal; • Bring every body togather includ the administration institutions.
INSTITUTIONAL Creation of: • • - General Direction of Civilian Security (DGSC); main known us secure operation and civilian protection center (COSEP), Comorian Coast Guard » • Centers of surveillence: • OVK • Météo services • Healthy information center • Maritime and fishing control center • • Promotion of clusters concept in state structures;
OMISSIONS • ‐ Lack of qualified people; • – Non appropriation of emergency plan; • – Non attendance of a simulation exercice ; • – Non attendance of a emergency substance ; • - Limited knowledge in the emergency treatments; • • victims pick ‐ up care; • • Difficulties to mobilise means for rebulding.
CONCLUSION Finally, I would solicit from the institutions present here, a strong support for the Union of Comoros are the same level as other countries in the Indian Ocean and in the region, in terms of risk management and disaster through training, equipment and simulation exercises.
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