a atom fundamental unit of matter

A. Atom fundamental unit of matter 1. Subatomic particles: e - = - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

I. Chemistry study of what substances are made of and how they change and combine A. Atom fundamental unit of matter 1. Subatomic particles: e - = electron n o = neutron p + = proton B. Element - each different kind of atom is a different

  1. I. Chemistry – study of what substances are made of and how they change and combine A. Atom – fundamental unit of matter 1. Subatomic particles: e - = electron n o = neutron p + = proton B. Element - each different kind of atom is a different element 1. Examples: C = carbon H = hydrogen O = oxygen N = nitrogen C. Compound - two or more elements chemically combined in definite proportions 1. Examples: CO 2 H 2 O NaCl C 6 H 12 O 6 2. Molecules - types of compounds made of nonmetals only isomers – same molecular formula; different structural formula Structural Formula = ALL C 6 H 12 O 6

  2. D. Chemical reactions – process leading to changes in matter 2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O (reactants) (products)

  3. E. Compounds are classified into two broad groups: 1. Inorganic Compounds – come from nonliving substances ( in = not organic = living ) 2. Organic Compounds – come from living substances

  4. II. Biochemistry – chemistry of living organisms (text pages 44 – 53) A. Organic compounds – compounds made by cells and containing carbon 1. Example: C 6 H 12 O 6 Glucose 2. Exception: CO 2 Carbon Dioxide

  5. 3. Organic compounds in living cells are usually complex compounds that are so large they are called macromolecules (giant molecules) or biomolecules 4. Macromolecules are formed by process called polymerization – smaller units called monomers join together to form polymers DRAw Aw pict ctur ure to reme memb mber

  6. 5. Four kinds of organic compounds : a. carbohydrates b. proteins c. lipids d. nucleic acids

  7. III. Carbohydrates A. Provides energy for all organisms — main source of energy for cells B. Most carbohydrates are manufactured from plants by photosynthesis. C. Structure: contains the elements C , H and O usually in ratio of 1:2:1 or 1C : 2H : 1O Example: C 6 H 12 O 6 = Glucose D. Food sources: Fruits, Vegetables, Grains, Pasta, Rice, Sugar, Cookies, Cakes, etc…

  8. E. Three groups of carbohydrates: 1. Monosaccharides = single sugar; basic structural unit from which larger carbohydrates are built ( mono = one sacchar = sugar) Examples: sugars usually end in -ose a. glucose – C 6 H 12 O 6 -- most common, in every cell – produced by green plants b. fructose -- C 6 H 12 O 6 -- sugar in fruits c. galactose -- C 6 H 12 O 6 -- sugar in milk d. isomers – same molecular formula; different structural formula *Reminder – These are isomers 

  9. 2. Disaccharide – double sugar (di = two) a. sucrose - cane sugar (table sugar) b. chemical reaction: 2 monosaccharides joined together to make a disaccharide glucose + fructose sucrose + water C 6 H 12 O 6 + C 6 H 12 O 6 C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O (when water is released in a chemical reaction = dehydration synthesis)

  10. 3. Polysaccharide – many sugars (poly = many) a. starch – polysaccharide stored in plants potatoes, pasta, grains (bread, rice) b. glycogen – polysaccharide stored in animals – stored in liver and muscles c. cellulose – polysaccharide that gives support and structure to plant cells ( fiber ) most abundant organic chemical on earth

  11. What is the purpose of storing sugars as polysaccharides in plant and animal tissues? Plants: Animals:

  12. Take 5: Complete concept map for carbohydrates

  13. Take 5: Complete concept map for carbohydrates

  14. E. Monomers/Polymers 1. General term for any small compounds that can be joined together to make larger compounds – monomer example: glucose = monomer of a carbohydrate. - many glucose molecules can be joined together by dehydration synthesis to make a polysaccharide (carbohydrate) 2. General term for any large compound formed by combining monomers - polymer example: Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose = polymer -These molecules are polymers made when many glucose molecules chemically combine.

  15. Let’s Practice! • Name the monomers for a birthday cake?

  16. But what are the monomers for the ingredients?

  17. V. Proteins (also called peptides or polypeptides) A. Needed for growth, maintenance and repair of living materials 1. cell membrane, skin, nails, hair, bones and muscles made of protein B. Fight disease – antibodies made of proteins C. Control rate of chemical reactions in cells – enzymes made of proteins D. Food source – lean meat, fish, eggs, cheese, nuts, beans, dairy

  18. E. Structure: 1. proteins are polymers of molecules called amino acids monomer = amino acid polymer = protein 2. contain the elements C , H , O and N Dehydration Synthesis of Proteins F. 20 different amino acids combine in different ways to make up thousands of different proteins

  19. G. Examples of protein structures

  20. Take 5: Complete concept Enzymes: map for Function: Proteins Diagram:

  21. VII. Enzymes Take 5 – read pages 56 – 58 in text A. Enzymes are catalysts in living organisms catalyst – substance that speeds up a chemical reaction B. Most enzymes are made of proteins C. Enzymes are not changed in a reaction and can be reused D. Enzymes are specific – speed up only one type of chemical reaction E. Lock and Key hypothesis – an explanation of how an enzyme works

  22. F. Substrate – substance upon which a certain enzyme acts G. Naming enzymes – add “ ase ” to substrate a. maltose is substrate – maltase is enzyme b. protein is substrate – protease is enzyme H. One important function of enzymes is speeding up digestion of food

  23. *Note: Anabolic – to build Catabolic – to break down *Enzymes can create or break down molecules at incredible rates!!!* The _ substrate __ gets used up, but the ___ enzyme ___ can be used again indefinitely

  24. Take 5: Complete concept map for Enzymes under the protein Biomolecule

  25. VII. Lipids A. Functions: 1. energy storage – twice as much energy / g. as carbohydrates 2. makes up part of the cell membrane 3. hormones are lipids – estrogen and testosterone B. Examples: 1. Fats – solid at room temperature – butter, lard (animal fat) 2. Oils – liquid at room temperature – corn oil, olive oil (plant fats)

  26. 3. Phospholipids and cholesterol – makes up cell membranes 4. Steroids – type of hormone that can cross cell membrane directly into cells 5. Waxes – on leaves of plants to make them waterproof

  27. C. Structure : fats and oils 1. composed of glycerol and 3 fatty acids 2. contain the elements C , H and O When glycerol + 3 fatty acids combine to form 1 fat molecule, H 2 O is released = dehydration synthesis

  28. D. Dietary importance 1. Saturated fats – generally come from animal fats a. Bad for you – deposited in arteries – cause heart disease Saturated with hydrogens (H) No double bonds in fatty acid chain

  29. 2. Unsaturated fats – generally from plant oils a. Better for you Have one or more double bonds

  30. 3. Cholesterol – 2 sources a. your body produces it – essential to life: helps produce certain hormones and part of cell membranes in animals b. you consume it in food 1. bad cholesterol – LDL (low density lipoprotein) – goes to cells, excess deposited in arteries 2. good cholesterol – HDL (high density lipoprotein) – gets rid of excess LDL’s in arteries

  31. Take 5: Complete concept map for Lipids

  32. VI. Nucleic Acids A. Function is to store and transmit genetic information from parent to offspring B. Examples: DNA and RNA (Nucleotide)

  33. • C. Contains the elements: C, H, O, N, P • D. Nucleic acids are made from monomers called nucleotides. – The 3 components of a nucleotide are  • 5 – carbon sugar (deoxyribose or ribose) • Phosphate group • Nitrogenous Base • E. Food source: all living food sources contain nucleic acids (i.e. they contain DNA/RNA). Food sources high in nucleic acids include items such as fish fruits, nuts, algae, and mushrooms.

  34. Take 5: Complete concept map for nucleic acids

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