sport amp non sport concussion recognition

Sport & Non-Sport Concussion: Recognition and Management L. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Sport & Non-Sport Concussion: Recognition and Management L. Michael Waters, Jr., DO Medical Director of University of Florida Plantation Oaks Family Medicine Clinic Disclosures Absolutely nothing to disclose! Concussion Definitions

  1. Sport & Non-Sport Concussion: Recognition and Management L. Michael Waters, Jr., DO Medical Director of University of Florida Plantation Oaks Family Medicine Clinic

  2. Disclosures • Absolutely nothing to disclose!

  3. Concussion Definitions • One definition of concussion is a condition in which there is a traumatically induced alteration in mental status, with or without an associated loss of consciousness (LOC). [ A broader definition is a traumatically induced physiologic disruption in brain function that is manifested by LOC, memory loss, alteration of mental state or personality, or focal neurologic deficits. (Medscape) • A concussion is a traumatic brain injury that alters the way your brain functions (Mayo Clinic) • A concussion is an injury to the brain that results in temporary loss of normal brain function (American Association of Neurological Surgeons)

  4. Concussion Synonyms • Jolt • Blast • Knocked out • Impact • Trauma • Hit • Jarred • “Bell Rung”

  5. SF's Borland quits over safety issues Borland, 24, said he notified the 49ers on Friday. He said he made his decision after consulting with family members, concussion researchers, friends and current and former teammates, as well as studying what is known about the relationship between football and neurodegenerative disease. "I just honestly want to do what's best for my health," Borland told "Outside the Lines." "From what I've researched and what I've experienced, I don't think it's worth the risk."

  6. Concussion Symptoms • Prolonged headache • Memory loss • Vision disturbances • Ringing ears • Dizziness • Difficulty concentrating • Nausea or vomiting • Sensitivity to light • Impaired balance • Loss of smell or taste • Confusion • “Fogginess” • Sleep Disturbances

  7. Differentials Acute Sub-acute or Chronic • Subdural or Epidural • Malingering Hematoma • Overtraining / Burnout • Heat Illness • Uncorrected Vision • Dehydration • Headaches • Hypoglycemia • Depression / Anxiety • Syncope • PTSD • Neck Injury

  8. Grades • Concussions are graded as mild (grade 1), moderate (grade 2), or severe (grade 3), depending on such factors as loss of consciousness, amnesia, and loss of equilibrium. • In a grade 1 concussion, symptoms last for less than 15 minutes. There is no loss of consciousness. • With a grade 2 concussion, there is no loss of consciousness but symptoms last longer than 15 minutes. • In a grade 3 concussion, the person loses consciousness, sometimes just for a few seconds. • Still debate about grade classification as some state LOC can happen in a grade 2 concussion.

  9. Clinical Tools • Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) • Good to have baseline • Balance Error Scoring established before the season. System (BESS) • All can be adversely affected by either patient or examiner • Symptom assessment • Not examined for validity • SCAT 3 (includes SAC, BESS, under age of 12 others) • Some are costly to administer • ImPACT Testing • Multiple others

  10. When do we send to Emergency?  General guidelines  Prolonged LOC  Focal neurological findings  Worsening mental status  Seizure activity  Worsening headache  Repeated emesis  Concern is for structural injury requiring computed tomography (CT) scan

  11. When Do We need to Refer?  Prolonged symptoms (should see improvement within 3 days)  Severe symptoms that are not improving  Your own individual comfort factor  Patient with multiple concussions  Decisions on retirement?  No “magic number”  Parental request

  12. Treatment • No medications have been proven  Reduced school day/off to help with concussions school • Most medication management  Reduced school load directed at specific symptoms  Untimed tests  Tutoring • Rest is the treatment (physical  May need to limit video and “brain rest”) games, texting, reading, • Avoid activity that can increase computer use, television pulse or blood pressure  Consideration for restrictions on driving reduced reaction time is issue

  13. Rest is the key

  14. “Brain Rest” Complexity  Need to Involve the school early  Make adjustments  ? days off  Follow up with schools on adjustments being made  High achieving students may not ‘give in’ to adjustments

  15. Most Common High School Sport Causes Males (In order) Females (In order) • Football • Soccer • Hockey • Lacrosse • Lacrosse • Basketball • Soccer • Softball • Wrestling • Field Hockey • Basketball • Cheerleading

  16. Caution Advised

  17. High School Sports Injury Stats • In most sports the main • Although overall numbers are mechanism of injury is contact higher for football, there are a with another player larger % of concussion vs overall injuries in • In softball and basketball the Cheerleading, Boys and Girls main mechanism is contact Lacrosse, and Boys Hockey with equipment • Girls typically take longer to • Younger the athlete, the recover and have more longer to recover symptoms

  18. More Causes Athletic Non-Athletic • Recreational sports • MVA • Martial Arts • Falls • Boxing • Various Trauma • Skiing • Assault • X games sports

  19. Post-Concussive Syndrome • People who suffer a head injury may suffer from side effects that persist for weeks or months. Symptoms include memory and concentration problems, mood swings, personality changes, headache, fatigue, dizziness, insomnia and excessive drowsiness. Patients with post-concussive syndrome should avoid activities that put them at risk for a repeated concussion. Athletes should not return to play while experiencing these symptoms. Athletes who suffer repeated concussions should consider ending participation in the sport.

  20. Second-impact Syndrome • Second-impact syndrome results from acute, often fatal brain swelling that occurs when a second concussion is sustained before complete recovery from a previous concussion. This is thought to cause vascular congestion and increased intracranial pressure, which can occur very rapidly and may be difficult or impossible to control. The risk of second-impact syndrome is higher in sports such as boxing, football, ice or roller hockey, soccer, baseball, basketball and snow skiing. • The CDC reports an average of 1.5 deaths per year from sports concussions. In most cases, a concussion, usually undiagnosed, had occurred prior to the final one.

  21. Sidney Crosby, the NHL’s top star After four straight shortened seasons due to injury and entering his ninth NHL campaign, Pittsburgh Penguins captain Sidney Crosby has declared himself healthy and ready for the upcoming season. Published Thursday, Sep. 05 2013

  22. “Return to Play” Guidelines • If concussion is suspected, do not allow return to play that day. • No activity until asymptomatic at rest • Then start to increase activity as tolerated each day: • Light aerobic activity • Sport-specific training • Non-contact training drills • Full contact training after medically cleared (Not a law in every state) • Game play

  23. What about our non-athlete patients? What can we do to help this guy?

  24. “Return to Work” Guidelines • There are no accepted guidelines for accepted time off to return to work in a non-professional sports setting. (Therefore our patient will have to use vacation days and possibly FMLA) • Most concussions (>80%) have patient back to baseline within 3 weeks.

  25. References • Marar M, McIIvain NM, Fields SK, et al. Epidemiology of concussions among United States high school athletes in 20 sports . Am J Sports Med . 2012;40(4):747-755 • • Lincoln AE, Caswell SV, Almquist JL, et al. Trends in concussion incidence in high school sports: a prospective 11-year study. Am J Sports Med . 2011;39(5):958 – 963; • Castile L, Collins CL, McIIvain NM, et al. The epidemiology of new versus recurrent sports concussion among high school athletes 2005-2010. Br J Sports Med . 2012;46(8):603 – 610; • • Gessel LM, Fields SK, Collins CL, et al. Concussions among United States high school and collegiate athletes. J Athl Train . 2007;42(4):495 – 503 • • Meehan WP 3rd, d’Hemecourt P, Comstock RD. High school concussions in the 2008-2009 academic year: mechanisms, symptoms, and management. Am J Sports Med . 2010;38(12):2405 – 2409; and Castile L, Collins CL, McIIvain NM, et al. The epidemiology of new versus recurrent sports concussion among high school athletes 2005-2010. Br J Sports Med . 2012;46(8):603 – 610 •

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