presentation of data

Presentation of Data Textual or Descriptive presentation Studying - PDF document

C HAPTER Presentation of Data Textual or Descriptive presentation Studying this chapter should Tabular presentation enable you to: Diagrammatic presentation. present data using tables; represent data using

  1. C HAPTER Presentation of Data • Textual or Descriptive presentation Studying this chapter should • Tabular presentation enable you to: • Diagrammatic presentation. • present data using tables; • represent data using appropriate 2. T EXTUAL P RESENTATION OF D ATA diagrams. In textual presentation, data are described within the text. When the 1. I NTRODUCTION quantity of data is not too large this form You have already learnt in previous of presentation is more suitable. Look chapters how data are collected and at the following cases: organised. As data are generally Case 1 voluminous, they need to be put in a compact and presentable form. This In a bandh call given on 08 September chapter deals with presentation of data 2005 protesting the hike in prices of precisely so that the voluminous data petrol and diesel, 5 petrol pumps were collected could be made usable readily found open and 17 were closed whereas and are easily comprehended. There are 2 schools were closed and remaining 9 generally three forms of presentation of schools were found open in a town of data: Bihar. 2019-20

  2. PRESENTATION OF DATA 41 Case 2 and columns (read vertically). For example see Table 4.1 tabulating Census of India 2001 reported that information about literacy rates. It has Indian population had risen to 102 crore three rows (for male, female and total) of which only 49 crore were females and three columns (for urban, rural against 53 crore males. Seventy-four and total). It is called a 3 × 3 Table giving crore people resided in rural India and 9 items of information in 9 boxes called only 28 crore lived in towns or cities. the "cells" of the Table. Each cell gives While there were 62 crore non-worker information that relates an attribute of population against 40 crore workers in gender ("male", "female" or total) with a the entire country. Urban population had number (literacy percentages of rural an even higher share of non-workers (19 people, urban people and total). The crore) against workers (9 crore) as most important advantage of tabulation compared to the rural population where is that it organises data for further there were 31 crore workers out of a 74 statistical treatment and decision- crore population... In both the cases data have been making. Classification used in presented only in the text. A serious tabulation is of four kinds: drawback of this method of presentation • Qualitative is that one has to go through the • Quantitative complete text of presentation for • Temporal and comprehension. But, it is also true that • Spatial this matter often enables one to emphasise certain points of the Qualitative classification presentation. When classification is done according to attributes, such as social status, physical status, nationality, etc., it is called qualitative classification. For example, in Table 4.1 the attributes for classification are sex and location which are qualitative in nature. TABLE 4.1 Literacy in India by sex and location (per cent) Location Total Sex Rural Urban Male 79 90 82 Female 59 80 65 3. T ABULAR P RESENTATION OF D ATA Total 68 84 74 In a tabular presentation, data are Source: Census of India 2011 . (Literacy rates presented in rows (read horizontally) relate to population aged 7 years and above) 2019-20

  3. 42 STATISTICS FOR ECONOMICS Quantitative classification (i) heights (in cm) and (ii) weights (in kg) of students In quantitative classification, the data of your class. are classified on the basis of characteristics which are quantitative in Temporal classification nature. In other words these In this classification time becomes the characteristics can be measured classifying variable and data are quantitatively. For example, age, height, categorised according to time. Time production, income, etc are quantitative may be in hours, days, weeks, months, characteristics. Classes are formed by years, etc. For example, see Table 4.3. assigning limits called class limits for the values of the characteristic under TABLE 4.3 Yearly sales of a tea shop consideration. An example of quantit- from 1995 to 2000 ative classification is given in Table 4.2. Calculate the missing figures in the Table. Years Sale (Rs in lakhs) 1995 79.2 TABLE 4.2 1996 81.3 Distribution of 542 respondents by 1997 82.4 their age in an election study in Bihar 1998 80.5 Age group No. of 1999 100.2 (yrs) respondents Per cent 2000 91.2 20–30 3 0.55 Data Source: Unpublished data. 30–40 61 11.25 40–50 132 24.35 In this table the classifying 50–60 153 28.24 60–70 ? ? characteristic is sales in a year and 70–80 51 9.41 takes values in the scale of time. 80–90 2 0.37 All ? 100.00 Activity Source: Assembly election Patna central • Go to your school office and constituency 2005, A.N. Sinha Institute of Social collect data on the number of Studies, Patna. students studied in the school in Here classifying characteristic is age each class for the last ten years and present the data in a table. in years and is quantifiable. Activities Spatial classification • Discuss how the total values When classification is done on the basis are arrived at in Table 4.1 of place, it is called spatial • Construct a table presenting classification. The place may be a data on preferential liking of the village/town, block, district, state, students of your class for Star News, Zee News, BBC World, country, etc. CNN, Aaj Tak and DD News. Table 4.4 is an example of spatial • Prepare a table of classification. 2019-20

  4. PRESENTATION OF DATA 43 TABLE 4.4 (i) Table Number Export from India to rest of the world in Table number is assigned to a table for 2013-14 as share of total export (per cent) identification purpose. If more than one Destination Export share table is presented, it is the table USA 12.5 number that distinguishes one table Germany 2.4 from another. It is given at the top or Other EU 10.9 at the beginning of the title of the table. UK 3.1 Generally, table numbers are whole Japan 2.2 numbers in ascending order if there are Russia 0.7 China 4.7 many tables in a book. Subscripted West Asia -Gulf Coop. Council 15.3 numbers, like 1.2, 3.1, etc., are also Other Asia 29.4 used for identifying the table according Others 18.8 to its location. For example, Table 4.5 All 100.0 should be read as the fifth table of the fourth chapter, and so on ( Total Exports : US $ 314.40 billion ) (See Table 4.5). Activity (ii) Title • Construct a table presenting The title of a table narrates about the data collected from students of contents of the table. It has to be clear, your class according to their brief and carefully worded so that the native states/residential interpretations made from the table are locality. clear and free from ambiguity. It finds place at the head of the table 4. T ABULATION OF D ATA AND P ARTS succeeding the table number or just OF A T ABLE below it (See Table 4.5). To construct a table it is important to (iii) Captions or Column Headings learn first what are the parts of a good At the top of each column in a table a statistical table. When put together column designation is given to explain systematically these parts form a table. figures of the column. This is The most simple way of conceptualising called caption or column heading a table is to present the data in rows (See Table 4.5). and columns alongwith some explanatory notes. Tabulation can be (iv) Stubs or Row Headings done using one-way, two-way or three- Like a caption or column heading, each way classification depending upon the row of the table has to be given a number of characteristics involved. A heading. The designations of the rows good table should essentially have the are also called stubs or stub items, and following: the complete left column is known as 2019-20

  5. 44 STATISTICS FOR ECONOMICS stub column. A brief description of the India were non-workers in 2001 (See row headings may also be given at the Table 4.5). left hand top in the table. (See Table (vi) Unit of Measurement 4.5). The unit of measurement of the (v) Body of the Table figures in the table (actual data) Body of a table is the main part and it should always be stated alongwith contains the actual data. Location of the title. If different units are there any one figure/data in the table is for rows or columns of the table, fixed and determined by the row and these units must be stated column of the table. For example, data alongwith ‘stubs’ or ‘captions’. If in the second row and fourth column figures are large, they should indicate that 25 crore females in rural be rounded up and the method Table Number Title ↓ ↓ Table 4.5 Population of India according to workers and non-workers by gender and location, 2001 (Crore) ↑ Column Headings/Captions ↓ Units Location Gender Workers Non-worker Total Main Marginal Total Male 17 3 20 18 38 Row Headings/stubs Rural Body of the table Female 6 5 11 25 36 Total 23 8 31 43 74 → ← Male 7 1 8 7 15 Urban Female 1 0 1 12 13 Total 8 1 9 19 28 Male 24 4 28 25 53 All Female 7 5 12 37 49 Total 31 9 40 62 102 Source : Census of India 2001 ↑ Note : Figures are rounded to nearest crore Source ↑ Note (Note : Table 4.5 presents the same data in tabular form already presented through case 2 in textual presentation of data) 2019-20

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