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IE 545 Designing with Digital Human Modeling Onan Demirel, Ph.D. Mechanical, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering 11/14/2018 Oregon State University 1 About Me Education: B.S., M.S and Ph.D (2015) in Purdue University Research


  1. IE 545 Designing with Digital Human Modeling Onan Demirel, Ph.D. Mechanical, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering 11/14/2018 Oregon State University � 1

  2. About Me Education: B.S., M.S and Ph.D (2015) in Purdue University Research Interests: • Design Theory and Methods • Digital Human Modeling • Human Factors Engineering • Systems Engineering • Product Design and Development • Industrial Design Contact: Onan Demirel Assistant Professor School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering Oregon State University Email: onan.demirel@oregonstate.edu Website (personal): www.onandemirel.com Website (professional): http://design.engr.oregonstate.edu/demirel 322 Rogers Hall | (765) 409-9419 | Corvallis, OR 97331 � 2

  3. About Me Human Factors Engineering Digital Human Modeling Design Theory and Methods Systems Engineering http://www.onandemirel.com/3-research-2/3-2-themes/3-2-2-design-theory-and-methods/ � 3 http://www.onandemirel.com/3-research-2/3-2-themes/3-2-3-human-factors-engineering/ http://www.onandemirel.com/project/human-in-the-loop-vehicle-design/

  4. WHAT IS DIGITAL HUMAN MODELING? � 4

  5. Digital Human Modeling What is it? What is DHM? ๏ is digital representation of the human inserted into a simulation or a virtual environment to facilitate prediction of safety and/or performance . ๏ includes: - visualization (form) - math/science (function) Abdel-Malek, K., Arora, J., Yang, J., Marler, T., Beck, S., Swan, C., ... & Patrick, A. (2006, October). Santos: A physics-based digital human simulation environment. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (Vol. 50, No. 20, pp. 2279-2283). Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications. � 5

  6. Digital Human Modeling What is it? What is DHM used for? ๏ Safety and performance assessments via biomechanics and ergonomics � 6 Course Material: ME 599 - Digital Human Modeling for Design - Onan Demirel

  7. Digital Human Modeling What is it? Why is it important? ๏ can incorporate Human Factors Engineering design principles earlier in the product development Finite Element Analysis � 7 http://www.onandemirel.com/7-projects/

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIGITAL HUMAN MODELS � 8

  9. Digital Human Modeling Brief Research Background ๏ Early Models - (1960 - 1980): - Cockpit packaging and pilot ergonomics of military aircraft - Prediction of center of gravity, principal moments, product of inertia - Design of cockpit consoles, seats and seat belts Vision envelope in a cockpit Unobscured rotation check J. W. McDaniel, “Models for ergonomic analysis and design: COMBIMAN and CREW � 9 CHIEF,” Comput. aided Ergon., pp. 138–156, 1990.

  10. Digital Human Modeling Brief Research Background ๏ Early Models - (1960s): - Mostly in 2D - some in 3D - Basic mathematical formulation (e.g., center of mass) - Not focusing on design but mostly analysis of postures The segmental method � 10 Adapted from Hamil & Knutzen, 1995, Biomechanical basis of human movement, Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.

  11. Digital Human Modeling Brief Research Background ๏ Biomechanics Models - (1960 - 1980s): - Generic biomechanics models for predicting strength capabilities - Manual/occupational tasks represented: lifting, pushing, pulling - Anthropometry, posture and force parameters 3D SSPP Software, University of Michigan � 11 https://c4e.engin.umich.edu/tools-services/3dsspp-software/3dsspp-example-applications/

  12. Digital Human Modeling Brief Research Background ๏ Biomechanics Models - (1960 - 1980s): - Static models - no consideration of dynamics human postures - Variations of people from military and limited civilian data base - Anthropometry, posture and force parameters � 12 Hamill, J., & Knutzen, K. M. (2006). Biomechanical basis of human movement. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  13. Digital Human Modeling Brief Research Background ๏ Biomechanics Models - (1960 - 1980s): - Anthropometry: people are different! - Considering variation in design process. � 13 Michalski, R., & Grobelny, J. (2014). Designing Emergency-Medical-Service Helicopter Interiors Using Virtual Manikins. IEEE computer graphics and applications, 34(2), 16-23.

  14. Digital Human Modeling Brief Research Background ๏ Statistical Models - (1980s - 2000 ): - Statistical DHM models bring anthropometry, motion and ergonomics capabilities to design of workplaces and product design. - CAD integration � 14 https://www.designnews.com/design-hardware-software/can-siemens-georgia-tech-fill-gaps-additive- manufacturing-industrial-engineering/152081214645855

  15. Digital Human Modeling Brief Research Background ๏ Statistical Models (1980s - 2000 ): - Advanced 3D models with higher visual and physical realism. - Motion Capture � 15 http://www.onandemirel.com/3-research-2/3-2-themes/

  16. Digital Human Modeling Brief Research Background ๏ Models with Technology Integration - (2000 - now ): - Beyond traditional statistical biomechanics and ergonomics - Technology integration: • markerless motion capture, • haptic devices and feedback , • immersive and virtual reality • digital twins • ….. � 16

  17. Digital Human Modeling Brief Research Background ๏ Models with Technology Integration - (2000 - now): - Computer driven models - High-fidelity postures and motion � 17 Abdel-Malek, K., Arora, J., Law, L. F., Swam, C., Beck, S., Xia, T., ... & Rasmussen, M. K. (2008). Santos: A Digital Human In the Making. IOWA UNIV IOWA CITY CENTER FOR COMPUTER AIDE

  18. Digital Human Modeling Brief Research Background ๏ Towards Multi-physics Model (2020s and beyond): http://www.onandemirel.com/project/human-in-the-loop-vehicle-design/ � 18

  19. DIGITAL HUMAN MODELING & ENGINEERING DESIGN � 19

  20. Digital Human Modeling Design Connection Designing with DHM: ๏ Before physical prototypes are built, engineering can: ๏ implement proactive ergonomics in product design ๏ evaluate human-product/environment interactions ๏ Working on digital prototypes via DHM has the potential to reduce: - design costs - time-to-market - the risk of injury - design errors � 20

  21. Digital Human Modeling Design Connection https://www.caricos.com/cars/v/vw/2012_volkswagen_up/images/76.html https://i.ytimg.com/vi/eHUfeJE0k_c/maxresdefault.jpg � 21 http://www.carbodydesign.com/archive/2007/01/22-audi-r8-design/3/ Lawson, G., Herriotts, P ., Malcolm, L., Gabrecht, K., & Hermawati, S. (2015). The use of virtual reality and physical tools in the development and validation of ease of entry and exit in passenger vehicles. Applied ergonomics, 48, 240-251.

  22. Digital Human Modeling Design Connection https://www.caricos.com/cars/v/vw/2012_volkswagen_up/images/76.html https://i.ytimg.com/vi/eHUfeJE0k_c/maxresdefault.jpg � 22 http://www.carbodydesign.com/archive/2007/01/22-audi-r8-design/3/ http://www.superstreetonline.com/cars/new-car-reviews/1502-new-audi-r8-prototype-first-drive/

  23. Why DHM? Detailed Computational Human Factors Engineering Reactive - Physical Human Studies vs. Proactive - Digital Human Modeling expensive (time & finances) cheap(er) ๏ ๏ slow fast(er) ๏ ๏ sequential / one at a time parallel ๏ ๏ only few-parameters to check multi-purpose ๏ ๏ …. …. ๏ ๏ � 23 https://www.caricos.com/cars/v/vw/2012_volkswagen_up/images/76.html

  24. Why DHM? Overall Design Cost and Time Reduction! Reactive Approach Proactive Approach � 24 Demirel, H. O. (2015). Modular human-in-the-loop design framework based on human factors (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University).

  25. DIGITAL HUMAN MODELING & ENGINEERING DESIGN OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS � 25

  26. Why is this important? Developing better products Especially for design that are hard to “prototype” ๏ � 26 https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_1916.html http://www.indiandefencereview.com/news/siemens-the-digitalization-of-submarine-development/

  27. Humans are not replaceable! Human Factors in Complex Systems Biodynamic Responses ๏ Underwater shock produced by an underwater explosion remains one of the biggest threats to ships and shipboard personnel. ๏ What is an underwater shock? Extremely high acceleration - Very short duration. - ๏ Each ship hull, engine, superstructure needs to pass this test ๏ Internal structure including crew space needs to provide safe working environment. https://www.navysite.de/cg/cg53.html � 27 https://my.nps.edu/web/svcl/project-portfolio

  28. Humans are not replaceable! Human Factors in Complex Systems Predicting Biodynamic Responses ๏ What are the options here? Relatively simplified version: - Zong, Z., & Lam, K. Y. (2002). Biodynamic response of shipboard sitting subject to ship shock motion. Journal of biomechanics , 35 (1), 35-43. � 28

  29. Humans are not replaceable! Human Factors in Complex Systems Predicting Biodynamic Responses ๏ What are the options here? Actual data collection via crash test - dummies: Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan) � 29 https://www.aerodefensetech.com/component/content/article/adt/features/articles/27963

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