designing nanomaterials for environmental health and

Designing Nanomaterials for Environmental Health and Safety Robert - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Designing Nanomaterials for Environmental Health and Safety Robert Hurt Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island The Fifth U.S.-Korea Forum on Nanotechnology Jeju Korea, April 17-18, 2008 Nanomaterials are complex chemical systems that

  1. Designing Nanomaterials for Environmental Health and Safety Robert Hurt Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island The Fifth U.S.-Korea Forum on Nanotechnology Jeju Korea, April 17-18, 2008

  2. Nanomaterials are complex “chemical systems” that may include: - surface functional groups - adsorbed surface species, bound and free ligands - byproduct phases or structures - chemical toxicants imbedded within a passivating shell - unreacted precursors, residual catalysts Commercial single-wall nanotube sample ZnS shell CdSe core

  3. Nanotechnology Toxicology Point of contact Disease between Surface nanomaterial / living receptor DNA modification Environmental science damage Persistent Purification Consumer Membrane inflammation use, disposal damage Bioaccumulation Synthesis Environmental Cellular Attachment fate. transport, uptake Translocation transformation Free radical metabolism and exposure Formulation excretion production (surfactants, solvents, R&D; Technical decision-making Epigenetic imbedding matrices) What material feature(s) effects triggers the biological response? Processing Developmental stresses effects feedback Causes ………… > Effects

  4. What material feature is the trigger for the biological response? Example: Effect of carbon nanotubes on electrically active cells (Lorin Jakubek w/ Prof. Diane Lipscombe, Neuroscience, Brown) Current in cells transfected with voltage-gated calcium channel swnt AP Current nA 100 80 % Inhibition %inhibition 60 40 increasing 20 nanotube dose 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time, ms conc ( 킽 /ml) SWNT dose ug/ml

  5. How do SWNTs inhibit neuronal calcium channels? SWNT % Inhibition Supernatant SWNT dose, ug/ml SWNT dose ug/ml no inhibition from purified SWNTs or soluble Ni Yttrium ion concentration ( ɥM )

  6. Calcium Ion Channel General channel structure Inhibition is due to Mobilized Yttrium! 80 % of inhibition 60 40 20 EEEE (glutamate) peptide sequence is highly preserved 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 in Ca channels Yttrium ion concentration ( ɥM )

  7. Bioavailability of Nickel in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis: Liu, Gurel, Morris, Murray, Zhitkovich, Kane, Hurt Advanced Materials , 19 2790 (2007) biological activity of C-imbedded metal is not obvious

  8. Cellular Response to CNT Nickel Effect of fluid media Soluble Ni dose-response PSF: Phagolysosomal Simulant Fluid in human lung epithelial cells (48 hrs) Control SWNTs inside lung epithelial cell vesicle by thin-section TEM Effect of CNT source / type 3 ppm (ug/g) 6 ppm (ug/g)

  9. Surface Effect of CNT hydrophobicity modification [Guo, Von Dem Busche, Buechner, Kane, Hurt ; Small, in press] Viability of HepG2 liver cells Simple Experiment SWNTs + Cell culture medium SWNT removal by centrifugal ultrafiltration solute profiling and cell culture in “exposed” media

  10. Amino acid profiling after dose-dependent SWNT exposure c) 0.18 0 control 0.16 1 ug/ml 100ug/ml 0.14 1mg/ml 10 mg/ml concentration mM 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 ASP MET TYR GLU HIS PHE Hydrophobicity index of Black and Mould, 1991

  11. Some vitamins are depleted at CNT doses as low as 10 ug/ml ! a) 0.0025 concentration mM 0.002 0.0015 0.001 0.0005 0 Riboflavin Biotin Pantothenic Folic Acid Acid control 0.01mg CNT/ml 0.1mg CNT/ml 1mg CNT/ml 10mg CNT/ml

  12. Effect of folate Competitive Folate Pathways replenishment and Biological Implications

  13. Result: A new “starvation mechanism” driven by hydrophobic depletion of essential micronutrients Adsorption of Essential Micronutrients by Carbon Nanotubes and Its Implications for Nanotoxicity Testing, Guo, Von Dem Bussche, Buechner, Kane, Hurt , SMALL in press Folate / SWNT Adsorption Isotherm Folate monoglutamate top view side view

  14. Purification Example: targeted removal of bioavailable metal as a detoxification strategy for nanotubes purification increases bioavailable metal ! Question 2: How can we target the bioactive portion of the metal for removal (and detoxification) Question 1: What is origin of bioavailable metal in “purified” CNTs ? (and why does “purification” sometimes increase it? )

  15. Purification do’s and don’ts Metal ion re-deposition on functional groups (don’t) Last step wash with Oxidation during non-oxidizing acid (do) or after acid wash (don’t)

  16. Summary � Carbon nanotubes can block neuronal calcium ion channels through release of trace amounts of yttrium! � Carbon nanotubes can also release toxicologically significant amounts of nickel – a known carcinogen that acts through epigenetic modification � Single-wall carbon nanotubes can inhibit cell growth by adsorbing folic acid and other micronutrients (even without contacting cells!) � The mechanisms above can be suppressed by proper purification (purification designed for detoxification) and by surface modification for hydrophilicity � There are many other opportunities to make nanomaterials safer by understanding biomolecular mechanisms and modifying the nanomaterial features that trigger those mechanisms.

  17. Contributors Materials Chemistry Pathobiology Neuroscience Prof. Diane Lipscombe Prof. Robert Hurt Prof. Agnes Kane Jesica Raingo Indrek Kulaots, Charles A. Vaslet Lorin Jakubek Annette Von Dem Bussche Lin Guo Kevin McNeil Xinyuan Liu Michelle Buechner Daniel Morris Jodie Pietruska Aihui Yan Ashley Smith

  18. Financial support at Brown: - US EPA (STAR Grant RD83171901) - NSF NIRT grant (DMI-050661) - SBRP grant at Brown (NIEHS P42 ES013660) - NIEHS R01 on Nanotoxicology RD-83171901-0

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