# An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads Category Theory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

## Restriction Monads Algebras for Restriction Monads An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads Category Theory 2017 at University of British Columbia Darien DeWolf Dalhousie University July 20, 2017 . . . . . . . . . . . .

1. Restriction Monads Algebras for Restriction Monads An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads Category Theory 2017 at University of British Columbia Darien DeWolf Dalhousie University July 20, 2017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Darien DeWolf An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads

2. Restriction Monads Algebras for Restriction Monads Restriction Categories A restriction structure on a category X is an assignment of an arrow f : A → A to each arrow f : A → B in X satisfying the following four conditions: (R.1) For all maps f , f f = f . (R.2) For all maps f : A → B and g : A → B ′ , f g = g f . (R.3) For all maps f : A → B and g : A → B ′ , g f = g f . (R.4) For all maps f : B → A and g : A → B ′ , g f = f gf . A category equipped with a restriction structure is called a restriction category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Darien DeWolf An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads

3. Restriction Monads Algebras for Restriction Monads Restriction Monads: Definition Version 1 In a bicategory with involution, a restriction monad consists of a 0-cell x , 1-cells T , D , E : x → x and 2-cells η : 1 T ⇒ T , µ : T 2 ⇒ T , [ µ | ∗ DE ] : DE ⇒ D , ρ : D ⇒ E (epic), ι : E ⇒ T (monic), ∆ : T ⇒ TD , τ : D 2 ⇒ D 2 and ψ : DT ⇒ TD satisfying conditions corresponding to (R.1) through (R.4) plus the usual monad laws plus D ∗ D = DD ∗ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Darien DeWolf An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads

4. Restriction Monads Algebras for Restriction Monads Problem with the first approach Ordinary monads in Span ( Set ) are in one-to-one correspondence with small categories. Let X be a restriction category. We can easily construct a restriction monad R ( X ) in Span ( Set ) with T , D , E behaving as desired, but we can’t canonically go backwards: the D is not uniquely determined by the choice of T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Darien DeWolf An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads

5. Restriction Monads Algebras for Restriction Monads Problem with the first approach Ordinary monads in Span ( Set ) are in one-to-one correspondence with small categories. Let X be a restriction category. We can easily construct a restriction monad R ( X ) in Span ( Set ) with T , D , E behaving as desired, but we can’t canonically go backwards: the D is not uniquely determined by the choice of T . One Solution: Define restriction monads so that D and E naturally become "subobjects" of T by design. We can do this easily if we think of T as having elements and defining our operations on certain subsets of T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Darien DeWolf An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads

6. � Restriction Monads Algebras for Restriction Monads Example: The elements of a monad in Span ( Set ) . Suppose that X is a small restriction category. For each element A of X 0 , we can define a span ⃗ A : {∗} � X 0 by {∗} ▲ id A � qqqqqq ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ {∗} X 0 Peek-ahead: We will call such a span {∗} -elemental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Darien DeWolf An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads

7. � Restriction Monads Algebras for Restriction Monads Example: The elements of a monad in Span ( Set ) . Suppose that X is a small restriction category. Its corresponding monad in Span ( Set ) is of the form X 1 s ▼ t � qqqqqq ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ X 0 X 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Darien DeWolf An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads

8. � � Restriction Monads Algebras for Restriction Monads Example: The elements of a monad in Span ( Set ) . Suppose that X is a small restriction category. Its corresponding monad in Span ( Set ) is of the form X 1 s ▼ t � qqqqqq ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ X 0 X 0 Composing ⃗ A with T , then is of the form {∗} A × s X 1 ◗ t π 1 id � ❧❧❧❧❧❧❧ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ {∗} X 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Darien DeWolf An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads

9. � � � Restriction Monads Algebras for Restriction Monads Example: The elements of a monad in Span ( Set ) . T ⃗ A contains as data all arrows of X with source A . Given another object B ∈ X 0 , a span morphism f : ⃗ � T ⃗ A , of the form B {∗} ◗ � ❧❧❧❧❧❧❧❧❧ ◗ id B ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ {∗} X 0 f � ❘❘❘❘❘❘❘ ♠ ♠ ♠ ♠ ♠ ♠ t π 2 π 1 ♠ {∗} A × s X 1 is therefore equivalent to the choice of an arrow f in X whose source is A and whose target is B . Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( ⃗ B , T ⃗ A ) ← → X ( A , B ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Darien DeWolf An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads

10. Restriction Monads Algebras for Restriction Monads Example: The elements of a monad in Span ( Set ) . Such an identification allows us to define the restriction operator ρ as a family of set functions ρ A , B : Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( ⃗ B , T ⃗ A ) → Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( ⃗ A , T ⃗ A ) of arrows f : A → B to arrows ρ ( f ) : A → A . The conditions that this family of assignments satisfies will be given in a definition soon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Darien DeWolf An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads

11. Restriction Monads Algebras for Restriction Monads Example: The elements of a monad in Span ( Set ) . Identifying Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( ⃗ B , T ⃗ A ) with X ( A , B ) , we must therefore consider how to “compose” elements of the set Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( ⃗ B , T ⃗ A ) × Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( ⃗ C , T ⃗ B ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Darien DeWolf An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads

12. Restriction Monads Algebras for Restriction Monads Example: The elements of a monad in Span ( Set ) . Identifying Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( ⃗ B , T ⃗ A ) with X ( A , B ) , we must therefore consider how to “compose” elements of the set Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( ⃗ B , T ⃗ A ) × Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( ⃗ C , T ⃗ B ) . Note that such an element is of the form ⃗ � T ⃗ C B ⃗ � T ⃗ B A , For all A , B , C ∈ X 0 , define a composition map � µ to be a Kleisli-flavoured composite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Darien DeWolf An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads

13. � � � Restriction Monads Algebras for Restriction Monads Example: The elements of a monad in Span ( Set ) . Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( ⃗ B , T ⃗ A ) × Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( ⃗ C , T ⃗ B ) Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( T , T ) × id Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( T ⃗ B , TT ⃗ A ) × Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( ⃗ C , T ⃗ B ) µ is the composite: � ◦ Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 ) TT ⃗ A , T ⃗ B ,⃗ C Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( ⃗ C , TT ⃗ A ) Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( ⃗ C ,µ ) Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( ⃗ C , T ⃗ A ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Darien DeWolf An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads

14. � � � Restriction Monads Algebras for Restriction Monads Example: The elements of a monad in Span ( Set ) . Defining � µ first requires an interpretation of the set Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( T ⃗ B , TT ⃗ A ) . Its elements are span morphisms of the form {∗} B × s X 1 ❯ t π 2 � ✐✐✐✐✐✐✐✐✐✐ ❯ π 1 ❯ ❯ ❯ ❯ ❯ ❯ ❯ ❯ ❯ {∗} X 0 f � ❯❯❯❯❯❯❯❯❯❯ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ t π 2 π 2 π 1 ✐ ✐ {∗} A × s π 1 ( X 1 t × s X 1 ) These are assignments of arrows f with source B to composable pairs of arrows with source A and target tf : → ( A → C ′ → C ) . ( B → C ) �− . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Darien DeWolf An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads

15. Restriction Monads Algebras for Restriction Monads Example: The elements of a monad in Span ( Set ) . The morphism Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( T , T ) Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( ⃗ B , T ⃗ → Span ( Set )( {∗} , X 0 )( T ⃗ B , TT ⃗ A ) − A ) is defined by [ ] [ ] f : A → B �− → ( f , − ) : ( g : B → C ) �− → ( f : A → B , g : B → C ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Darien DeWolf An Element-based Reformulation of Restriction Monads

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