a review of dimensionality reduction in

A review of dimensionality reduction in high-dimensional data using - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Second Workshop on Software Challenges to Exascale Computing (13 th , 14 th December 2018, New Delhi) A presentation on A review of dimensionality reduction in high-dimensional data using multi-core and many-core architecture by Mr.

  1. Second Workshop on Software Challenges to Exascale Computing (13 th , 14 th December 2018, New Delhi) A presentation on A review of dimensionality reduction in high-dimensional data using multi-core and many-core architecture by Mr. Siddheshwar Vilas Patil Ph. D. Research Scholar (QIP , AICTE Scheme) Under the Guidance of Prof. Dr. D. B. Kulkarni Registrar & Professor in Information Technology, Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli, MH, India (A Government Aided Autonomous Institute)

  2. Outline • Introduction • Dimensionality Reduction • Literature Review • Challenges • Parallel Computing Approaches • Conclusion • References 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 2

  3. Introduction • Massive amounts of high dimensional data • Big Data - Exponential growth and availability of data, 3Vs • Afterwards, this list was extended with “ Big Dimensionality” in Big Data . • “Curse of Big Dimensionality”, is boosted by the explosion of features ( thousand or even millions of features) • Early, Data scientists - huge number of instances , while paying less attention to the features aspect. 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 3

  4. Big Dimensionality Millions of Dimensions 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 4

  5. Example- libSVM Database • In 1990s, the maximum dimensionality - 62,000 • In 2000s - 16 million • In 2010s - 29 million • In this new scenario, it is common now to deal with millions of features, so the existing learning methods need to be adapted. 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 5

  6. Summary of high-dimensional datasets 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 6

  7. Scalability • Scalability is defined as the effect that an increase in the size of the training set has on the computational performance of an algorithm: accuracy, training time and allocated memory. 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 7

  8. Methods to perform DR • Missing Values • Low Variance- Let’s think of a scenario where we have a constant variable (all observations have the same value) in data set • Not improve the power of model because it has zero variance • High Correlation- It is not good to have multiple variables of similar information. • Pearson correlation matrix to identify the variables with high correlation. 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 8

  9. Dimensionality Reduction • Feature Extraction: Transforms original features to a set of new features • More compact and of stronger discriminating power. • Applications - Image analysis, Signal processing, and Information retrieval 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 9

  10. Dimensionality Reduction • Feature Selection: remove the irrelevant and redundant features • Two features are redundant to each other if their values are completely correlated • Irrelevant: contain no information that is useful for the data mining task at hand • Feature is relevant if it contains some information about the target (removal of this feature will decrease accuracy of classifier) 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 10

  11. Dimensionality reduction • Linear Methods: – Principal Component Analysis (PCA) – Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA) – Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) – Non-negative Matrix Factorization(NMF) – Lasso • Non-Linear Methods: – Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) – Isometric Feature Mapping (Isomap) – Hilbert Schmidt Independence Criterion(HSIC) – Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevancy ( mRMR) • Autoencoders (Linear as well Non Linear) 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 11

  12. Feature selection methods • Individual evaluation is also known as feature ranking and assesses individual features by assigning them weights according to their degrees of relevance. • Subset evaluation produces candidate feature subsets based on a certain search strategy. • Compared with the previous best one with respect to this measure. • While the individual evaluation is incapable of removing redundant features because redundant features are likely to have similar rankings, the subset evaluation approach can handle feature redundancy with feature relevance. 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 12

  13. Feature Selection Steps • Feature selection is an optimization problem. • Step 1: Search the space of possible feature subsets. • Step 2: Pick the subset that is optimal or near-optimal with respect to some criterion 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 13

  14. Feature Selection Steps (Cont’d) • Search strategies – Exhaustive – Heuristic • Evaluation Criterion - Filter methods - Wrapper methods 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 14

  15. Search Strategies • Assuming d features, an exhaustive search would require: • Examining all possible subsets of size m. • Selecting the subset that performs the best according to the criterion. • Exhaustive search is usually impractical. • In practice, heuristics are used to speed-up search 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 15

  16. Evaluation Strategies • Filter Methods – Evaluation is independent of the classification method – The criterion evaluates feature subsets based on their class discrimination ability (feature relevance): • Mutual information or correlation between the feature values and the class labels 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 16

  17. Evaluation Strategies • Wrapper Methods – Evaluation uses criteria related to the classification algorithm. – To compute the objective function, a classifier is built for each tested feature subset and its generalization accuracy is estimated (e.g. cross- validation) 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 17

  18. Evaluation Strategies Evaluation Strategies • Filter based – Chi-Squared – Information Gain – Correlation-Based Feature Selection, CFS • Wrapper methods – recursive feature elimination – sequential feature selection algorithms – genetic algorithms 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 18

  19. Feature Ranking • Evaluate all d features individually using the criterion • Select the top m features from this list. Sequential forward selection (SFS) (heuristic search) • First, the best single feature is selected • Then, pairs of features are formed using one of the remaining features and this best feature, and the best pair is selected. • Next, triplets of features are formed using one of the remaining features and these two best features, and the best triplet is selected. • This procedure continues until a predefined number of features are selected. • Wrapper methods (e.g. decision trees, linear classifiers) or Filter methods (e.g. mRMR) could be used • Sequential backward selection (SBS) 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 19

  20. Advantages of Dimensionality Reduction • Helps in data compression, and hence reduced storage space. • It reduces computation time. • It remove redundant irrelevant features, if any • Improves accuracy of Classification 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 20

  21. Literature Review • Implementation of the Principal Component Analysis onto High- Performance Computer Facilities for Hyperspectral Dimensionality Reduction: Results and Comparisons • An Information Theory-Based Feature Selection Framework for Big Data Under Apache Spark • Ultra High-Dimensional Nonlinear Feature Selection for Big Biological Data 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 21

  22. Author Dimensionality Parallel H/W configuration Datasets reduction programming algorithm model M. Hilbert-schmidt MapReduce Intel xeon 2.4 GHz, 24 GB P53, Yamada independence framework RAM (16 cores) Enzyme et al. [7] criterion lasso (Hadoop and with least apache spark) angle regression Z. Wu Principal MapReduce Cloud computing (Intel AVIRIS et component framework Xeon E5630 CPUs(8 cores) cuprite al.[12] analysis (Hadoop and 2.53 GHz, 5GB RAM, hypersp apache spark), 292 GB SAS HDD), 8 ectral MPI Cluster slave(Intel Xeon E7-4807 datasets CPUs (12 cores) 1.86 GHz) S. Minimum MapReduce Cluster (18 computing Epsilon, Ramirez redundancy on apache nodes, 1 master node) URL, - maximum spark, CUDA computing nodes: Intel Xeon Kddb Gallego relevance on GPGPU E5-2620, 6 cores/processor, et al.[2] (mRMR) 64 GB RAM 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018

  23. Author Dimensionality Parallel H/W configuration Datasets reduction programming algorithm model E. Martel Principal CUDA on Intel core i7-4790, NVIDIA Hyperspectr et al. [4] component GPGPU 32 GB Memory, GeForce al data analysis GTX 680 GPU J. Zubova Random MPI Cluster - URL, Kddb et al. [13] projection L. Zhao Distributed Cluster platforms - Economic et subtractive data (China) al. [5] clustering S. Singular value CUDA on Intel core i7, 8GB RAM, - Cuomo et Decomposition GPGPU 2.8 GHz, GPU NVIDIA al.[8] Quadro K5000, 1536 CUDA cores W. Li et Isometric CUDA on Intel core i7-4790, 3.6 GHz, HIS datasets al. [9] mapping GPGPU 8 cores, 32GB RAM, GPU -Indian (ISOMAP) Nvidia GTX 1080, 2560 pines,Salinas CUDA cores, 8GB RAM , Pavia 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018

  24. Challenges • Exponential growth in the dimensionality and sample size. • So, the existing algorithms not always respond in an adequate same way when deal with this new extremely high dimensions. 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 24

  25. Challenges • Reducing data complexity is therefore crucial for data analysis tasks, knowledge inference using machine learning (ML) algorithms, and data visualization • Ex. Use of feature selection in analyzing DNA microarrays, where there are many thousands of features, and a few tens to hundreds of samples 1/24/2019 SCEC 2018 25


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