Drug-Target Interaction Prediction for Drug Repurposing with Probabilistic Similarity Logic SHOBEIR FAKHRAEI* LOUIQA RASCHID LISE GETOOR University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA

Outline • Drug Repurposing • Drug-Target Interaction Network • Probabilistic Similarity Logic (PSL) • Drug-Target Interaction Prediction with PSL • Experimental Results BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

New Drug Development Illustration Credit: XVIVO Scientific Animation • Time Consuming: New drugs take a decade to reach market. • Costly: Development cost reaches 2 billion US dollars. BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Valley of death: Most novel drug candidates never get approved!

Drugs • Drugs: Organic small molecules that bind to bio-molecular targets to activate/inhibit their functions • Drug often affect multiple targets. • Poly-pharmacology is an area of growing interest BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Drug Repurposing • Drug Affecting Multiple Targets: • Adverse side-effects • Unexpected therapeutic effect • Drug Repurposing/Repositioning: Finding new uses for approved drugs. • No need for tests required for a new therapeutic compound (Already approved) BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Sildenafil was originally developed for pulmonary arterial hypertension

Need for Systematic Search • Most new treatment are discovered by chance during clinical trials. • There is a need for a better systematic approach. • Experimental identification of drug-target associations is labor intensive and costly • A better solution? BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Using computational predictions to focus biological search

Drug-Target Interaction Network Interaction Drug Target … … … BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Drug-Target Interaction Network + Similarities Target- Drug-Drug Target Similarity Similarity … … … BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Multiple Similarities . . . PPI- Side- Gene Sequence- Chemical- Ligand- network- Ontology- effect- based based based based based based BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

D-T Interaction Network + Multiple Similarities ? … … … BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Drug-Target Interaction Prediction • Data: • Drug-target interaction network • Set of drug-drug similarities • Set of target-target similarities • Task: • Link Prediction (New drug-target interactions) BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Challenges Labels • Data is not originally flat: • Classifiers need a set of features and Features instances. • Instances: all interactions in the Instances network (pairwise) or only interaction of one drug or target. • Features: Feature engineering • Not Independent and Identically Not independent Distributed (IID): Interactions depend on each other (a drug tends to interact with similar targets) • Multi-relational: • Drug-Target Interactions • Different Drug-Drug Similarities • Different Target-Target Similarities BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Probabilistic Similarity Logic

Probabilistic Similarity Logic (PSL) • Declarative language based on logic to express collective probabilistic inference problems. • Logical foundation • Probabilistic foundation • Weight Learning BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Logic Foundation

General Rules Predicates P A, B ∧ Q B, C → R A, C Variables e.g., 𝐽𝑜𝑢𝑓𝑠𝑏𝑑𝑢𝑡 𝐸, 𝑈 2 ∧ 𝑇𝑗𝑛𝑗𝑚𝑏𝑠𝑈𝑏𝑠𝑓𝑢 𝑈 1 , 𝑈 2 → 𝐽𝑜𝑢𝑓𝑠𝑏𝑑𝑢𝑡 𝐸, 𝑈 1 • Can use predicate to define relations between variables. e.g. Interacts(D, T) • Grounding: Instantiation of predicates with data. e.g. Interacts(acetaminophen, cox2) • Groundings have a soft-truth values between [0, 1] BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Lukasiewicz t-norm and co-norm P A, B ∧ Q B, C → R A, C ∨ 𝑅 ∧ 𝑅 𝑄 𝑄 P P Q Q • 𝑄 ∧ 𝑅 = 𝑛𝑏𝑦 0, 𝑄 + 𝑅 − 1 • 𝑄 ∨ 𝑅 = 𝑛𝑗𝑜 1, 𝑄 + 𝑅 • ¬𝑄 = 1 − 𝑄 BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Satisfaction • Interpretation (I) : an assignment of soft-truth values to a set of groundings. • Rule satisfaction: r body → r head is satisfied when I r body ≤ I r head max 0, 0.7 + 0.8 − 1 = 0.5 ≥ 0.5 0.7 0.8 P A, B ∧ Q B, C → R A, C BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Distance to Satisfaction 𝑒 𝑠 𝐽 = 𝑛𝑏𝑦 𝐽 𝑠 − 𝐽 𝑠 ℎ𝑓𝑏𝑒 , 0 𝑐𝑝𝑒𝑧 max 0, 0.7 + 0.8 − 1 = 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.8 P A, B ∧ Q B, C → R A, C 𝑒 𝑠 𝐽 = 0.0 0.7 0.8 0.2 P A, B ∧ Q B, C → R A, C 𝑒 𝑠 𝐽 = 0.3 BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Rule Weights w : P A, B ∧ Q B, C → R A, C • Rule can have weights which corresponds to importance of the rule. • Can come from domain knowledge • Can be learned from data BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Review • PSL program + Dataset Set of ground rules • Some groundings (predicates) have known truth values and some have unknown truth values. • Every Interpretation of unknown groundings (predicates) different weighted distances to satisfaction • How to decide which Interpretation is best? BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Probabilistic Foundation

Probabilistic Model Rule ’ s distance to satisfaction: Rule ’ s weight − 𝑱 𝒔 𝒊𝒇𝒃𝒆 , 𝟏 𝒆 𝒔 𝑱 = 𝒏𝒃𝒚 𝑱 𝒔 𝒄𝒑𝒆𝒛 𝑔 𝐽 = 1 𝑞 Probability 𝑎 𝑓𝑦𝑞 − 𝑥 𝑠 𝑒 𝑠 𝐽 density over interpretation I 𝑠∈𝑆 Distance Normalization exponent Set of ground constant in {1, 2} rules BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Inferring Most Probable Explanations • Given a set of observed groundings infer the values of unknown groundings • e.g., Given a set of drug-target interactions + a set of D-D and T-T similarities infer the value of other interactions. • Convex optimization: perform inference using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) [Bach et al., NIPS 2012] • Fast, scalable, and straightforward • Optimize sub-problems (ground rules) independently. BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Weight Learning

Weight Learning w : P A, B ∧ Q B, C → R A, C • Learn the weights from training data • Various methods: • Approximate maximum likelihood [Broecheler et al., UAI 10] • Maximum pseudo-likelihood • Large-margin estimation BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

PSL Summary • Design probabilistic models using declarative language • Syntax based on first-order logic • Inference of most-probable explanation is fast convex optimization (ADMM) • Learning algorithms for training rule weights from labeled data. BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Drug-Target Interaction Prediction with PSL

Predicates • Interacts D, T • SimilarTarget β T 1 , T 2 • e.g. β can be Sequence-based, PPI-network- based, Gene Ontology-based. • SimilarDrug α D 1 , D 2 • e.g. α can be Chemical-based, Ligand-based, Expression-based, Side-effect-based, Annotation- based. BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Drug-Target Interaction Prediction Rules

Triad-based rules (Targets) • Drugs tend to interact with similar targets (friend of friend is a friend) 2 ? 1 𝐽𝑜𝑢𝑓𝑠𝑏𝑑𝑢𝑡 𝐸, 𝑈 2 ∧ 𝑇𝑗𝑛𝑗𝑚𝑏𝑠𝑈𝑏𝑠𝑓𝑢 𝛾 𝑈 1 , 𝑈 2 → 𝐽𝑜𝑢𝑓𝑠𝑏𝑑𝑢𝑡 𝐸, 𝑈 1 BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Triad-based rules (Drugs) • Targets tend to interact with similar drugs (friend of friend is a friend) 2 ? 1 𝑇𝑗𝑛𝑗𝑚𝑏𝑠𝐸𝑠𝑣 𝛽 𝐸 1 , 𝐸 2 ∧ 𝐽𝑜𝑢𝑓𝑠𝑏𝑑𝑢𝑡 𝐸 2 , 𝑈 → 𝐽𝑜𝑢𝑓𝑠𝑏𝑑𝑢𝑡 𝐸 1 , 𝑈 BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Tetrad-based Rules (Similar Edges) • Similar edges are likely to form in a graph 2 2 ? 1 1 𝑇𝑗𝑛𝑗𝑚𝑏𝑠𝐸𝑠𝑣 𝛽 𝐸 1 , 𝐸 2 ∧ 𝑇𝑗𝑛𝑗𝑚𝑏𝑠𝑈𝑏𝑠𝑓𝑢 𝛾 𝑈 1 , 𝑈 2 ∧ 𝐽𝑜𝑢𝑓𝑠𝑏𝑑𝑢𝑡 𝐸 2 , 𝑈 2 → 𝐽𝑜𝑢𝑓𝑠𝑏𝑑𝑢𝑡 𝐸 1 , 𝑈 1 BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

Negative Prior • Negative prior indicates “Interacts” predicate is most likely false • i.e., most drugs and targets do not interact X X X X X X ¬ 𝐽𝑜𝑢𝑓𝑠𝑏𝑑𝑢𝑡 𝐸, 𝑈 BioKDD 2013 | Chicago | Drug- Target Interaction Prediction …

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