Coronary Heart Disease Disease Information Packets – Slide Sets Public Health Services, Community Health Statistics 12/2012
What is Coronary Heart Disease? What is Coronary Heart Disease? • Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common heart condition under the broad description of heart the broad description of heart disease in the United States. • Caused by atherosclerosis – narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the h l bl d d h heart due to plaque (fatty deposits). – Impaired blood flow can cause death of the heart muscle from lack of oxygen oxygen. • CHD can also cause: – Heart Attack – Heart Arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat) – Heart Failure – Sudden Cardiac Death Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention (DHDSP), “Heart Disease Facts and Statistics”, http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/statistics.htm.
Demographic Risk Factors g p • Age – About 82% of people who die from CHD are 65 or older. p p • Gender – Men are more likely than women to have CHD. • Heredity/Genetic factors • Heredity/Genetic factors – Risk of CHD increases 2 ‐ 3 times if a close relative has the disease. • Race/ethnicity – Blacks and Hispanics are at a higher risk for developing CHD than whites. • Socio ‐ economic Status – Those of low socioeconomic status are at a higher risk for developing CHD than those of high socioeconomic status. Sources: American Heart Association. My Heart and Stroke News. Coronary Artery Disease. The ABCs of CAD. February 2012. ‐ Scheuner MT, Whitworth WC, McGruder H, Yoon PW, Khoury MJ. Familial risk assessment for early ‐ onset coronary heart disease. Genet Med 2006:8(8):525 ‐ 531.
Behavioral and Social Risk Factors Behavioral and Social Risk Factors • High blood pressure – B.P. ≥ 140 mmHg/90 mmHg increases the risk of CHD. • High blood cholesterol Hi h bl d h l l – About 1 of every 3 adult Americans has high blood cholesterol. cholesterol • Diabetes Mellitus – At least 3 out of 4 people with l f l h diabetes die from heart or blood vessel disease. Sources: American Heart Association. My Heart and Stroke News. Coronary Artery Disease ‐ The ABCs of CAD. February 2012. Schober SE, Carroll MD, Lacher DA, Hirsch R. High serum total cholesterol—an indicator for monitoring cholesterol lowering efforts; U.S. adults, 2005– 2006. NCHS data brief no 2, Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2007.
Behavioral and Social Risk Factors • Sedentary lifestyle / Obesity – Obesity is a major risk factor for CHD Obesity is a major risk factor for CHD. – About 75 million adults are obese. • Tobacco use – Smoking cigarettes contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. – The risks of CHD and sudden cardiac death are higher among smokers than non smokers smokers than non ‐ smokers. • Poor nutrition • Poor medical care Poor medical care • Stress, depression Sources: ‐ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention (DHDSP), “Heart Disease Risk Factors”, http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/risk_factors.htm. ‐ American Heart Association. My Heart and Stroke News. Coronary Artery Disease ‐ The ABCs of CAD. February 2012.
Intermediate Outcomes • Stroke – A diseased heart increases the risk of stroke. • Angina pectoris – Causes chest pain or discomfort from reduced blood supply to the heart. • High blood pressure • High cholesterol • Diabetes Sources: American Heart Association. My Heart and Stroke News. Coronary Artery Disease ‐ The ABCs of CAD. February 2012. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/MyHeartandStrokeNews/Coronary ‐ Artery ‐ Disease ‐‐‐ The ‐ ABCs ‐ of ‐ CAD_UCM_436416_Article.jsp
National Statistics • 49.7% of U.S. adults aged ≥ 20 years (an estimated 107.3 g y ( million persons) have at least one of the three leading risk factors for CHD. (Valderrama, 2011) • Coronary heart disease caused 1 of every 6 deaths in the United States in 2008. (AHA) • In 2007, one ‐ quarter of all deaths (616,000) were from diseases of the heart. (Xu, 2010) from diseases of the heart. (Xu, 2010) Sources: ‐ American Heart Association. Circulation. Executive Summary: Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012. 2012; 125: 188 ‐ 197. ‐ Xu JQ, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Tejada ‐ Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2007. National vital statistics reports; vol 58 no 19. Hyattsville, MD: NCHS; 2010 ‐ Valderrama L, Amy, et al. Million Hearts: Strategies to Reduce the Prevalence of Leading Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors ‐‐‐ United States, 2011. MMWR. 2011; 60(36);1248 ‐ 1251
National Disparities Top 5 States with Highest • In the United States, Heart Disease Death Rates, the rate of death due United States, 2000 ‐ 2006 to heart disease in 2006 was highest in 1. Mississippi Mississippi and lowest Mississippi and lowest 2. Oklahoma 2 Oklahoma in Minnesota. 3. Alabama 4 4. West Virginia West Virginia 5. Kentucky Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Heart Disease Fact Sheet, January 2010.
National Disparities Coronary Heart Disease Age ‐ Adjusted Death Rates* United States, 2009 180 166.9 166.7 160 140 140 126.0 126.0 126.1 126.1 * Rate per 100,000* 120 99.9 94.8 94.3 100 73.1 80 60 R 40 40 20 0 *Age ‐ adjusted rates are per 100,000 2000 U.S. Standard population. Source: Source: National Vital Statistics System, CDC, NCHS. Online database accessed 11/07/2012, http://www.wonder.cdc.gov. Prepared by County of San Diego (CoSD), Health & Human Services Agency (HHSA), Public Health Services, Community Health Statistics, 11/07/2012 . P d b C f S Di (C SD) H l h & H S i A (HHSA) P bli H l h S i C i H l h S i i 11/07/2012 In 2009, the age ‐ adjusted death rate from CHD was highest for blacks, followed by whites and higher for men than women followed by whites, and higher for men than women. Source: National Vital Statistics System, CDC, NCHS. Online database accessed 11/07/2012, http://www.wonder.cdc.gov. Prepared by County of San Diego (CoSD), Health & Human Services Agency (HHSA), Public Health Services, Community Health Statistics, 11/07/2012.
Local Statistics and Disparities CHD Deaths*: Actual and Age ‐ Adjusted Rates** San Diego County, 2009 180 Actual Rate** 162.4 160 Age ‐ Adjusted 135.4 140 130.1 Rate** 119.0 120 107.2 106.1 101.7 102.5 0** 95.5 100 100 Rate per 100,000 84.2 76.6 74.5 80 64.8 60 45.2 40 R 20 0 Total Male Female White Black Hispanic API‡ * CHD Death refers to (underlying cause of death) ICD ‐ 10 codes I11,I20 ‐ I25. * h f ( d l f d h) d ** County actual rates are per 100,000 individuals. County age ‐ adjusted rates per 100,000 2000 US standard population. § Rates not calculated for fewer than 5 events. ‡ API includes Asian and Pacific Islander. Source: Death Statistical Master Files (CADPH), County of San Diego, Health & Human Services Agency, Epidemiology & Immunization Services Branch; SANDAG, Current Population Estimates, 10/2010. Prepared by County of San Diego (CoSD), Health & Human Services Agency (HHSA), Community Health Statistics, 9/19/2012.
Local Statistics and Disparities CHD Death* Rates** by Age Group, San Diego County, 2009 900 Actual Rate** 773.7 800 Age ‐ Adjusted 700 Rate** 600 ** ate per 100,000* 500 400 300 Ra 200 200 107.2 102.5 100 33.5 § § 0 Total 0 ‐ 14 Years 15 ‐ 24 Years 25 ‐ 64 Years 65+ Years * CHD Death refers to (underlying cause of death) ICD ‐ 10 codes I11,I20 ‐ I25. ** County actual rates are per 100,000 individuals. County age ‐ adjusted rates per 100,000 2000 US standard population. § Rates not calculated for fewer than 5 events. ‡ API includes Asian and Pacific Islander. Source: Death Statistical Master Files (CADPH), County of San Diego, Health & Human Services Agency, Epidemiology & Immunization Services Branch; SANDAG, Current Population Estimates, 10/2010. Prepared by County of San Diego (CoSD), Health & Human Services Agency (HHSA), Community Health Statistics, 9/19/2012. Prepared by County of San Diego (CoSD), Health & Human Services Agency (HHSA), Community Health Statistics, 9/19/2012.
Local Statistics and Disparities Coronary Heart Disease † Rates* San Diego County, 2009 180 160 160 135.7 140 112.0 120 0,000* 107.2 105.8 102.8 98.7 92.6 100 Rate per 100 80 60 40 20 0 San Diego Central East North Central North Coastal North Inland South County *R t *Rates are per 100,000 population. 100 000 l ti †Coronary Heart Disease death refers to (underlying cause of death) ICD ‐ 10 codes I11, I20 ‐ I25. §Rates not calculated for fewer than 5 events. Rates not calculated in cases where zip codes is unknown or outside San Diego. Source: San Diego County Community Profiles, CoSD, HHSA, Epidemiology and Immunization Services Branch; SANDAG, Current Population Estimates, 10/2010. Prepared by County of San Diego (CoSD), Health & Human Services Agency (HHSA), Community Health Statistics, 6/28/2012.
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