2013 2014

2013 2014 Development of an Evidence-Based Surgical Chairman, - PDF document

Froedtert Hospital Infection Control Team Moving Beyond SCIP: 2013 2014 Development of an Evidence-Based Surgical Chairman, Infection Control Committee Bundle to Improve Patient Mary Beth Graham, MD, Outcome Infection Control

  1. Froedtert Hospital Infection Control Team Moving Beyond SCIP: 2013 – 2014 Development of an Evidence-Based Surgical Chairman, Infection Control Committee Bundle to Improve Patient Mary Beth Graham, MD, Outcome Infection Control Coordinators Patti Wilson, BSN, CIC Pat Sadenwasser, BSN, CIC Charles E. Edmiston Jr., PhD., CIC Mary Jane Dorava, BSN, CNOR Professor of Surgery & Hospital Epidemiologist - Department of Surgery Medical College of Wisconsin Microbiologists Milwaukee, Wisconsin USA Nathan Ledeboer, PhD, D-ABMM edmiston@mcw.edu Candy Krepel, MS, SM-ASCP Hospital Epidemiologist Charles Edmiston, PhD, CIC Administrative Support Donna Welter, CMSM 1

  2. “Risk Reduction Requires an Understanding of the Mechanistic Factors which Potentiate the Risk of Infection in the Surgical Patient Population” Maki DG, Hospital Infections (3 rd ed) 1992 p. 861 Risk is a Myriad Event - SSI A More Than a Typical Scenario – What is the True Risk of Infection? Fishbone Diagram Pre-operative Factors Peri-operative Team Factors Organizational and Management Factors High Risk Patient: Immunosuppressive meds - RA Lack of traffic control – too Lack of hand many in room Financial constraints Diabetes hygiene Contaminated environment Improper surgical hand antisepsis Patient body colonization Inadequate surgical Advanced age Poor leadership prophylaxis Improper surgical Poor communication attire Prior surgery to same joint among team Lack of pre-op shower Increase hospitalization days Unsterile instruments Psoriasis Surgical irrigation Non-coated sutures Malnourished Use of Staples or steri-strips MRSA or MSSA nasal morbid obesity Obese Poor staff levels Lack of discontinuation colonization of antibiotics at 24 hrs Use of Drains sAlb<35 Diabetic Poor surgical technique Workload and Smoker shift patterns Infection at another site Contamination of incision post- low sTransferrin op Lack of re-dosing of Contaminated environment Design, availability and maintenance antibiotic Remote sites of infection of equipment Inadequate staffing for post-op care Environment and physical plant Immunosuppressive problems (air handling system) Smokers agents Lack of foley catheter removal within 48 hrs Lack of hand hygiene ASA ≥3 Surgeon Patient Work Environmental Factors Care Delivery problems (CDPs) Factors Technique 2

  3. “ Every operation is an “It’s all about the surgical wound” Evidence-Based Hierarchy experiment in bacteriology” Moynihan “….all surgical wounds are contaminated to some degree at closure – the primary determinant of whether the Br J Surgery 1920; 8 : 27-35 contamination is established as a clinical infection is host (wound) defense” Belda et al., JAMA 2005;294:2035-2042 Mitigating Risk - Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) – An Evidence-Based Approach • Timely and appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis Glycemic control in cardiac • and vascular surgery Appropriate hair removal • • Normothermia in general surgical patients Is this the Holy Grail? 3

  4. National Inpatient Sample – AHRQ Pre / Post-SCIP ERA 2000 – 2010 study period (1 year hiatus period – 2006) • No significant • 437,420 vascular difference in procedures morbidity or mortality • Infection rate - 1.5% • No significant difference in LOS • No significant difference pre and • Patient care costs post-SCIP for managing infected cases have increased ~ 60% Dua, Desai, Edmiston and Lee: Submitted 2014 JAMA Dua, Desai, Edmiston and Lee: Submitted 2014 JAMA 4

  5.  Embracing the Surgical Care  Antimicrobial Prophylaxis – Bundle – Selected Elements Weight-Based Dosing Does BMI Increase Risk? Does BMI Increase Risk? Somewhere in Wisconsin - Patient’s Weight vs. Perioperative Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Higher BMI (>40) Patients: Do We Achieve Therapeutic Levels? Dose (N= 520 - pre-SCIP ) Percent Therapeutic Activity of Serum / Tissue Concentrations Compared to Surgical Isolate (2002-2004) Susceptibility to Cefazolin Following 2-gm Perioperative Dose Organisms n 85.1% Serum Tissues 48% 52% Staphylococcus aureus 70 68.6% 27.1% Staphylococcus epidermidis 110 34.5% 10.9% 14.9% E. coli 85 75.3% 56.4% Klebsiella pneumoniae 55 80% 65.4% <70kg (n=63/130) >70kg (dose not adjusted n=57/67) >70kg (n=67/130) >70kg (dose adjusted n=10/67) Edmiston et al, Surgery 2004;136:738-747 5

  6. Effect of Maternal Obesity on Tissue Concentration Of Prophylactic Cefazolin During Cesarean Delivery  Element 1 All surgical patients will receive a minimum dose of 2 gram unless their BMI is >30 – Then the correct dose is 3 grams (1A pharmacologically – weight adjusted) Pevzner L, Edmiston CE, et al. Obstet & Gynecol 2011;117:877-882 Risk Reduction Begins on the Front End 6

  7. Mean Chlorhexidine Gluconate (CHG) Skin Surface Revisiting the Preadmission Concentrations (µg/ml+SD) Compared to MIC 90 (5 µg/ml) (Preoperative) Shower for Staphylococcal Surgical Isolates Including MRSA a Subgroups (mean C, µg/ml) Pilot b 1 2 Study 1 Study 2 Study 3 Study 4 Groups (4%) (4% Aqueous) (2% Cloths) [C CHG /MIC 90 ] p-value Group A (20) evening (1X) 3.7+2.5 24.4+5.9 436.1+91.2 0.9 4.8 87.2 <0.001 Group B (20) 7 Sentinel Studies? morning (1X) 7.8+5.6 79.2+26.5 991.3+58.2 1.9 15.8 198.2 <0.0001 • No routine standard of practice • No evidence of patient compliance • Heterogeneous study population Group C (20) Combined Meta-Analysis • Some individuals showered once, others both (2X) 9.9+7.1 126.4+19.4 1745.5+204.3 2.5 25.3 349.1 <0.0001 Results multiple times a N = 90 Edmiston et al, J Am Coll Surg 2008;207:233-239 Webster J, Osborne S. The Cochrane Collaboration. The Cochrane Library. 2009;4:1-34. Edmiston et al, AORNJ 2010;92:509-518 b Pilot group N = 30 Presurgical Skin Preparations as a Pathway to Improving Surgical Outcomes Reducing the risk of SS I in orthopaedic surgery • • Standardized precleansing initiative in total joint patients (night before/morning of surgery) SSI rate prior to intervention – 3.2% (N=727) •  What is the Evidence-Based SSI rate post intervention – 1.6% (N=824) 50% reduction p<0.01 • Eiselt – Orthopaedic Nursing 2009;28:141-145 Argument? Bundling risk reduction strategies – Quality initiative • MRSA prescreening in orthopaedic, obstetric, bariatric patients – • decolonization Presurgical antisepsis prior to surgery • Preintervention SSI rate 1.6% (N=17/1,095) vs postintervention SSI rate • 0.57% (N=7/1,225 ) >60% reduction MRSA SSI rate 0.73% vs 0.16% >75% reduction p<0.01 • Lipke VL, Hyott AS. AORNJ 2010’;62:288 -296 7

  8. Institutional Prescreening for Detection and CHG Measuring Patient Compliance Eradication of Staphylococcus aureus in Patients Undergoing Elective Orthopaedic Surgery • All patients undergoing elective surgical procedures take 2 CHG preadmission showers/cleansing Study Period Control Period p value 100 random orthopaedic and general surgical patients queried as to • 6/2006-9/2007 10/2005-6/2006 whether or not they complied with preoperative instructions (2012) N 7019 5293 • 71 indicated that they had taken two showers/cleansing MRSA Infection 4 (0.06%) 10 (0.18%) 0.0315 • 19 indicated that they took one shower (morning prior to admission 15/19) MSSA Infection 9 (0.13%) 14 (0.26%) 0.0937 • 10 indicated they did not use CHG at all Reasons for non-compliance • Total SSIs 13 (0.18%) 24 (0.46%) 0.0093 Didn’t realize it was that important (institutional failure - communication) • Forgot (patient failure - low priority/apathy) • Kim DH, Spencer M, Davidson SM, et al. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2010;92:1820-1826 Thought one shower would be sufficient (patient - institutional failure) • Edmiston et al. J Am Coll Surg 2014: On Line Edmiston et al. J Am Coll Surg 2014: In Press 8

  9.  Element 2 All patients undergoing an elective surgical procedure will take a minimum of 2 CHG antiseptic shower/cleansings using a standardized regimen – The CHG must be provided to the patient by the hospital and the protocol must be enhanced to assure patient compliance (Remember the devil is in the details) Edmiston et al. J Am Coll Surg 2014: In Press DESIGN: A PROSPECTIVE, RANDOMIZED, MULTICENTER CLINICAL TRIAL OF 2% CHLORHEXIDINE GLUCONATE / 70% ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL (Alc-CHG) VS POVIDONE- IODINE (PI) FOR PREVENTION OF SSI Multi Center: Michael E. Debakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ben Taub General Hospital, Houston, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Boston, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Atlanta, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston • Patients > 18 years, undergoing clean-contaminated procedures (gastrointestinal, thoracic, urologic and gynecologic) • N = 849 surgical patients: 409 Alc-CHG vs 440 PI • 1:1 randomization • Patients monitored for 30 days post-op • Overall rate of SSI was significantly reduced in Alc-CHG vs PI groups: 9.5% vs 16.1%, p=0.004 • Significant difference for both superficial incisional site rate: 4.2% A-CHG vs 8.6% PI ( p=0.008 ) and deep incisional: 1% A-CHG vs 3% PI ( p=0.05 ) • No significant adverse events noted during the study in either group • Alc-CHG superior to PI in reducing the risk of SSI in clean-contaminated procedures New England Journal of Medicine 2010;362:18-26 9

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