epidemiology and management of olive knot caused by

Epidemiology and management of olive knot caused by Pseudomonas - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Epidemiology and management of olive knot caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi Dr. James Adaskaveg, Professor Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology University of California Riverside Overview I. Epidemiology A. Olive knot

  1. Epidemiology and management of olive knot caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi Dr. James Adaskaveg, Professor Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology University of California Riverside

  2. Overview I. Epidemiology A. Olive knot - Entry points of the pathogen B. Effect of inoculum level on disease development C. Wound healing and susceptibility to infection D. Disease development: Localized knots vs. systemic infection II. Management of olive knot by sanitation A. A new sanitizer for field equipment I. Management of olive knot with field applications of chemicals A. Field surveys on sensitivity of Psv to copper and antibiotics B. Efficacy of new bactericides and optimization Copper • Oxytetracycline accepted into IR-4 program Sept 2015. • Kasugamycin accepted into IR-4 in 2014 • Field trials on the persistence of copper-antibiotic • mixtures after a rain event C. Timing of applications relative to injuries

  3. Olive Knot - Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi Isolation plates of Psv on KMB (left) and PVF-1 (right) under long-wave UV. Ø Economically important worldwide Ø All olive varieties are susceptible to Psv. Specific amplification of Psv Ø Pathogen gains entry into host through wounds. Ø Psv found as an epiphyte on surface and as an endophyte inside knots. Ø Produces phytohormones that cause hyperplastic and hypertrophic outgrowths (knots, galls). Ø Infections cause tree defoliation, branch dieback, and reduced tree vigor.

  4. Olive Knot – Disease Cycle Pseudomonas Psv survives Knots develop during savastanoi pv. epiphytically on olives active tree growth and endophytically in savastanoi (Psv) and reduce tree knot tissue health and v Gram-negative productivity bacterium v Epiphytic, opportunistic wound pathogen Olive Knot v Naturally Disease Cycle disseminated by rain and water splash Infects naturally and mechanically Bacteria exuded from made wounds knots during periods of rain and dispersed

  5. Epidemiology • Entry points of the pathogen and environmental conditions for infection • Inoculum availability • Effect of inoculum level on disease development

  6. Olive knot - Epidemiology Infection through: • Leaf scars – spring leaf drop • Cold injury - frost • Mechanical injury - pruning, harvesting, hail Increase in olive knot • High-density plantings, mechanical harvesting, and Leaf scar infection Mechanized pruning pruning operations to optimize yield and reduce labor costs are causing an increase in bark injuries. • Olives (especially oil varieties) growing areas have expanded into areas that are more prone to winter freezes. Mechanized harvest

  7. Olive knot - Epidemiology Time of infection in CA • Late fall, winter, spring (rainy / cold season) • Knot development in the spring and summer Environmental conditions • Infections occur D isease knots, over wide range of E nvironmental temperatures M oisture, and host • Wetness is the main I njuries determine environmental factor S everity of olive knot favoring disease E pidemics and potential development DEMISE of olive groves if the disease is unmanaged Pathogen

  8. Olive knot – Epidemiology Knots are inoculum sources • Knots with living host 11 Log CFU/g olive knot tissue tissue contain viable inoculum 10 • Re-hydrating olive knots for one hour led to 9 bacterial oozing from 8 most of the knots. • Nearly all knots tested 7 continued to ooze the 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Duration of wetness (h) pathogen after 18 to 24 h of hydration.

  9. Wounding and inoculation technique • 1- to 2-yr-old twigs were laterally injured with a sterile scalpel or leaves were pulled off to make leaf scars • Bacterial inoculum was sprayed onto wounds • Plants evaluated after 3-6 months Leaf scar and lateral wound Healed lateral wound Lateral wounds developing knots

  10. Epidemiology: Effect of inoculum concentration on development of olive knots Ø Leaf scars and lateral wounds were inoculated with Psv using 100 % incidence of knots selected inoculum concentrations 80 Ø Rating for incidence of knot 60 development 40 Lateral wound Ø Regression of inoculum Leaf scar 20 concentration on disease incidence 0 0.02 0.2 2 20 200 Ø Symptoms develop after 3-6 Psv inoculum concentration (CFU/mL x 1 million) months in the field Conclusion: Naturally occurring Psv concentrations can cause a high incidence of disease. Various developmental stages of knots on wounds

  11. Epidemiology Wound healing Leaf scars and lateral branch wounds • Leaf scar wounds and lateral wounds were inoculated after 0 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, or 3 weeks.

  12. 100 Incidence of knot formation Field study Leaf scars Duration of 80 Lateral wounds susceptibility of 60 injuries to (%) infection 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 Inoculation time (days after wounding) Studies Leaf Scars Lateral wounds Greenhouse 10 days - >90% reduction 14 days - >90% reduction 10 days - 80% reduction Field 10 days - >90% reduction 20 days - >90% reduction Age of the injury is a critical factor - Wound-healing occurs over time and is not affected by wetness.

  13. Epidemiology - Localized 35 2012-13 Precipitation (mm) 30 Minimum Temp (C) knots vs. systemic infection 25 Extended cold but no subsequent rain Temperature (C), Precipitation (mm) 20 • Psv systemic movement rarely 15 10 observed 5 • High incidence of systemic 0 -5 30 infection in field trials in the 3-Sep 2-Oct 31-Oct 29-Nov 28-Dec 26-Jan 24-Feb 25-Mar 23-Apr 22-May 2013-14 Precipitation (mm) 25 Minimum Temp (mm) spring of 2014 20 15 • Weather data indicate periods 10 of low temperatures (≤0°C) with 5 intermittent rains 0 Systemic Symptoms -5 • Frost damage and subsequent 3-Sep 2-Oct 31-Oct 29-Nov 28-Dec 26-Jan 24-Feb 25-Mar 23-Apr 22-May wetness may have provided Date Extended cold + subsequent rainfall ideal conditions for Psv movement. Systemic infection Typical Psv knots movement Inoculation point

  14. Potential factors causing Psv systemic movement Low-temperature growth chamber studies- • Cv. Manzanillo and Arbequina olives wounded, inoculated with Psv, and exposed to - Typical knot development at inoculation sites 5°C Knot development away • Extensive defoliation and from inoculation site branch dieback • Systemic movement (nodules) observed away from inoculation sites 2 cm Inoculation point and knot development

  15. Management of Olive knot • Cultural: • Maintain tree vigor, reduce tree stress, reduce leaf drop • Sanitation: • Pruning and removal of knots during dry periods (inoculum reduction) • Disinfection of pruning tools (Sodium hypochlorite) • Chemical applications to trees: • Painting galls with Gallex • Spray applications with copper- containing bactericides to reduce inoculum and protect wounds

  16. Management of olive knot: Sanitation of equipment A new sanitizer - quaternary ammonium compound

  17. Direct toxicity of Deccosan 321 against Psv Direct Contact Assay 20 % Psv recovery relative to Ø Psv was exposed to fixed y = -4.2563x + 18.729 15 R² = 0.93512 concentrations of QAC for control selected time periods. 10 Ø Suspensions were diluted 5 and plated. 0 15 30 45 60 Ø Enumeration of viable Psv Exposure duration (seconds) *Psv recovered 100% in the control, mean 1.6x10 5 CFU/mL Results: QACs are highly toxic to Psv at low concentrations and very short exposure durations. Psv recovery in the Psv recovery after untreated control QAC exposure

  18. Performance of sanitizing agents for olive field equipment Hard Surface Disinfection Assay H2O A Ø Simulate olive harvester Sodium hypochlorite 100 B mg/L Ø PVC piping contaminated Ster-Bac Quat 2,000 C with macerated olive tissue + mg/L (Olive mill label) Psv Deccosan 315 2,000 C mg/L Ø Pipes treated with QAC Deccosan 321 2,000 formulations for 90 seconds C mg/L Ø Pipes lightly rinsed with H 2 O 0 2000 4000 6000 Psv recovery after sanitation (CFU/mL) Ø Macerate collected and *Same letters are not significantly different based on LSD mean plated for Psv enumeration separation procedures (p < 0.05) QACs highly effective - improved performance over sodium hypochlorite in disinfecting hard surfaces in the presence of organic matter.

  19. Performance of Deccosan 321 as an equipment sanitizer under field conditions on cv. Arbequina Number of knots/8 branches Sanitation treatment Foliar application Trial 2 Trial 1 B C Non-inoculated - B C Deccosan 321 (2000 ppm) Kasumin + Kocide B Deccosan 321 Kocide C Deccosan 321 - B BC NaOCl (50 ppm) - B B Non-sanitized - A A 0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 Olive branches were pruned with a contaminated hedger (control) or sanitized with Deccosan 321 (2000 mg/L) or sodium hypochlorite (50 mg/L). Some branches were treated with an additional foliar application of Kocide 3000 (3.5 lb/A) or Kocide 3000 + Kasumin (100 mg/L). Disease evaluations were done after 6 months.

  20. Summary: Equipment sanitation in the field Ø Mechanized olive production creates a high risk for olive knot. Ø Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are highly toxic to Psv at low concentrations and short exposure durations. Ø QACs remain efficacious in the presence of organic load over a wide pH range (6-9). Ø QACs are non-corrosive. Ø Deccosan 321 (MaQuat 615-HD) was registered for use on CA olives in early 2015.

  21. Management of olive knot: Field surveys on sensitivity of Psv to copper and antibiotics


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